Fundamentals

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Phonetic speech: are the sounds produced by each individual in each specific act of a broadcast phonics. PHONETICS OF THE STANDARD: phonic traits that are common to the vast majority of speakers of a language. There phonic features that depend on context.
The phonic features that depend on context are called allophones, depending on the phonemes that accompany the particular phoneme will decide one way or another. Phonemes - sounds ideal model meaningless minimum unit Sounds: materialization of phonemes in speech Graphy / letters form the alphabet of a language and phonics play in writing. There are more letters than phonemes. The spelling mistakes mostly due to these mismatches between letters and phonemes. COMPETITIONS: From the oppositions derive the relevant features. To set the oppositions the procedure used is that of switching, changing the phonemes, we change the meaning and say that they oppose phonemes.
NEUTRALIZATION: Sometimes phonic two features that oppose the system, ie differing meanings, may stop working as opposition. One speaks of neutralization and the result of this neutralization is called archiphoneme and is represented in upper case (pass / ABTO). The archiphoneme consists of all relevant features of the two phonemes of a neutralized opposition. Dephonologization: The disappearance of a phoneme in a geographic or social community of speakers due to opposition fails. (Example: Many speakers do not distinguish between chicken / bench, fence / go are yeístas). Phonology also addresses relationships between different phonemes combination of a language. Not all combinations of phonemes are possible. PHONOLOGICAL CONTRAST: combinatorial properties between phonemes constitute what is known as (possible combination). SYLLABLES
It is a phonetic unit of the speech chain meaningless. It has the following features:
1.This consists either of a single sound, or by a group of sounds. Ex: a-gua
2.Se consists of a core called a nucleus that is always a Spanish vowel. Consonant sounds may also carry front and behind the nucleus. These consonant sounds are called syllabic margins. Ex: o-t-a

Vowels and unstressed vowels
The nucleus is always a Spanish syllabic vowel is characterized by maximum intensity, ie articulatory energy, maximum loudness, aperture, muscle tension and visibility.
Vocal Tonic: When the syllable nucleus has a greater degree of intensity of a word or group phonics, and has the highest clarity of articulation. On that lies the greatest strength of voice.
Ex: ha - bi - Toha - bi - Toha - bi - to

Unstressed vowel:those syllabic nuclei within a word containing a lesser degree of intensity and are less clear articulation. Those that do not bear the strongest voice.

Open syllables and closed syllables
Open syllables ending in vocalpa - and - s or
Locked: The syllables ending in one or more consonantestrans - for - ma r

The letter h is not pronounced in Spanish and therefore does not count the syllables. Ex: héroeéroe

Where a word appears adjacent cc, each belongs to a different syllable.
Example: ac - tion

The letter x represents two phonemes / kog / + / s /. Therefore the first syllable of a word x will be locked because a syllable ends in a vowel, especially if he goes before a consonant. When x is between vowel phonemes belong to different syllables.
x = k + s / g + s
Eg: test: ek-sa-men / eg-sa-menextranjero: eks-tran-je-ro / egs-tran-je-ro

DIPONGO
It is the union of two vowels in one syllable. Eg vein - you; rau - do
The diphthongs may consist of:
• A low vowel (a, e, o) + vowel (i, u) or vice versa. In this case the syllable nucleus is the vowel. There are two types of diphthongs in this group:

- Falling diphthongs: consist of a open and a closed vowel. So called because the articulators move from open to a closed position. Ex: cau-sa; pei-ne; boi-na, vo-y

- Rising diphthongs: are formed by a vowel in closed and open. So called because the articulators move from a closed to an open position. Eg hundred, then
· Two vowels (i, u), the syllable nucleus vowel is always listed second, is to be carried tilde.


Triphthong
It is the union of three vowels in one syllable. Ex: a-ve-ri-gays
In triptongos the syllable nucleus vowel is always the element that appears in the middle and it is always a vowel. When one triphthong tilda tilde necessarily falls on the syllable nucleus, ie on the vowel. Ex: a-ku-Ciais

HIATOS
A hiatus is formed by two adjacent vowels belonging to different syllables. In pronunciation the two vowels are separated in two shots slightly different voice.
Example: ti-a, ca-o-ba;
There are several kinds of hiatus:
1.Hiatos formed with two vowels (a, e, o). Ex: you-be-o, ca-o-ba
2.Hiatos formed with vowel (i, u) + vowel (a, e, o). Eg tri-o; pub-a; pi-e
3.Hiatos formed with vowel (a, e, o) + vowel (i, u). Ex: ra-ul; re-íd
4.Hiatos formed by vowel (i, u) + vowel (i, u). Example: ti-t-ta, hu-id; Diur-no

The h does not count on hiatus since this concept, like diphthongs and triphthongs is a phenomenon phonetic (pronunciation) and not graphic.

SYLLABLE DIVISION GUIDELINES
To divide into syllables of Spanish words should be taken into account the following guidelines:
1.A consonant between two vowels form syllables with the second vowel (ca-se-ta)
2.The sounds / p / / b / / f / / g / / k / followed by a liquid consonant form an inseparable group. (pri-mi-cia, a-bri-go, white-do, a-fli-gir)
3.The sounds / t / / d / followed by / r / also form an inseparable group. (a-back; a father-of). But when followed by / l / normal speech is separate peninsula consonant sounds in two different syllables. (at-the, at-le-ta). However Islands and Latin America in the sequence may act in the same syllable. (a-tlas, a-tle-ta).
4.Si two consonants appear together in other groups than those mentioned, each consonant belongs to a different syllable. (with-so-nan-te, lec-tion).
5.Si initial group is the two consonants belong to the same syllable. (psycho-lo-gi-a, gno-mo).
6.Si three consonants appear together and the latter is a liquid (l, r) the first part of a syllable other than that they belong to the other two. (com-pro-bar, ham-ber).
7.Si are three consonants and the latter is not liquid, the first two syllables are grouped into distinct from that in which is the last consonant. In the latter case, it is always of the groups:
Ns + consonanteins-pec-ing
B + cons.Abs-tra-er
Ks + cons.Éks-ta-sis
Ds + cons.Ads-cri-to
Rs + cons.Pers-pec-ti-va
8.Other without agupaciones three liquid consonants may appear in foreign words. (hams-ter).
9.The words formed from three-consonant syllables occur in foreign words (gang-ter)
10.The vowels of the syllables belonging to deferent hiatuses and diphthongs of the same syllable. (Au-re-o, he-ro-e, pio-jo, sa-rolled)


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