do business, a job • Make money, a loss • launch a product, a campaign • cut costs, jobs • reach a Decision, a target • run a business, a company
PRESENT PERFECT • Since • For • Yet • Already • Just • So far/up to now • Always/ever/never
• 1. The staff Training programme was upgraded a) Last year b) in the late 1990s • 2. The First computer was invented a) In the 20th century c) many years ago • 3. It Has been a difficult year in Portugal b) so far c) till now • 4. They have b) Already c) never met their targets • 5. How many new products have they Launched a) Since last summer b) this year?
•In – for long periods E.G. In March •At – for short periods e.G. At the weekend •On – for one day E.G. On Monday •Last/this/next – no preposition is used
•In – geographical References e.G. In Lisbon •At - general references e.G. At work •In - specific reference e.G. In the classroom •On – contact of 2 surfaces e.G. On the table
we use on with all Transport; on the coast; at sea; on the island
CONDITIONALS • Type 1 – a possible future Structure: If + present tense, future (will) Example: If You study, you will get good results Note: Unless = if not Example: you won’t Get good results unless you study • Type 2 – a hypothetical future Structure: If + past, would + infinitive without to Example: If your English was perfect, You wouldn’t need to study. Note: Alternatives to if include: As long as, on Condition that, providing that • Type 3 – hypothesising about the past Structure: if + past perfect, would have + past participle Example: If we Hadn’t made a risky investment, we wouldn’t have lost all our money.
• From – to Example: VAT rose from 21% to 23% •
Between – and Example: The price ranges between €50 and €70 • By (after a verb
To indicate the difference between 2 points) Example: The price fell by €10 •
Of (after a noun to indicate the difference between 2 points) Example: There
Was a fall of €10 • At: when there is no movement Example: In January, sales
Stood at €5m. • We also use up and down when describing stock price changes Example:
Shares closed the day up/down at 1.55 per share