market sice by value=tot volume of sales x average market price. Market sice by value=business sales/%market sharex100. Market share=value of firm A's sales/value of tot market salesx100. Market growth=change in size of market by value/original size of market by value x100. PED=percentage change in quantity demanded/percentage change in price. Income elasticity of demand=percentage change in quantity demanded of good A/percentage change in consumers' real income. Total revenue=average selling price x quantity sold. Total costs=total fixed costs+total variable costs. Average(units) costs=total costs/number of items produced. Profit=total revenue-total costs. Profit margin= selling price-unit cost. Operating profits=gross profit-expenses. Variance=actual figures-budget figures. Unit contribution=selling price-variable cost per unit. Total contribution=total revenue-total variable costs. Total contribution=(selling price-unit direct costs)x output or unit sold. Change in contribution=contribution in time period 2-contribution in time period 1 OR additional revenue-additional variable costs. Break-even output=fixed costs of the business/contribution per unit. Gross profit margin=gross profits/revenuex100. Operating profit margin=operating profit/revenuex100. Return on capital employed=operating profit/total equity+non-current liabilitiesx100. Return on equity=operating profit/total equityx100. Dividend per share(DPS)=total dividends/number of shares issued. Earnings per share(EPS)=net profit after tax/number of shares, Dividend yield(DY)=dividen per share/market pricex100. Price earnings/ratio=market price/earnings per share. Current ratio=current assests/current liabilities. Acid test ratio=(current assets-inventories)/current liabilities. Inventory turnover=cost of sales/average inventories held. Payback=income required/net cash flow for the yearx12(months). Labor turnover=number of leavers last year/average number of employees that yearx100. Labour costs=total direct labour costs/total units produced. Total productivity=output per time period/number of employees.