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tma 3. d gnralidads the ostologia

· · Classification d ls uses:
· Uses long: typical d ls members, and its length rflja both the rapidz cm dl potncia movement 1 d ls xq caractriza their prdomina ejs others about the ls 2. stan somti2 large traction.
Tubulars · its shaft, with the 1st cavity Mdula cntral, s ensanxa (mtafisis) acia ls extrmos articulars expandi2 (epiphysis), q flxa2 tienne cntros d ossification and frcuencia multipls.
· Uses short: s ex caractrizan xq no other prdomina about the ls 2. stan somti2, especially comprsion d forces, sn capacs d rsistir muxa prsion, x lo q sueln TNR fine d use the 1st cortza compact, the 1st zone soxtada x intrior totalmnt trabcular. ls Solmes find enl enl carpus and tarsus.
· Ejmpls: vrtbras, cuboids, scafoids.
·-Use irrgulars: comprndn cualkier asignabl not easily use to NiNg1 d ls antriors groups. nivl d sueln star to face the bas d
· Both form the structura cm sn d ls uses factors afctadas x gnticos, mtabolicos and mcanicos, and each use long rprsntal rsultado istoria d 1A functional travs d incontabls gnracions sucsivas.
· · The suprficis ls dprsions ylvacions intrrumpn bears.
· Dprsion s dnomina · a pit. dprsions ls s conocn cm long furrows.
• A musca s the 1st notch and 1 ueco ral s 1 iato.
• A projection processes dnomina s grand, if s long, thin or pointed the yamamos spina.
• A projection or rdondada s tubrculo Tubro the 1st.
· Dnominan crstas s laslvacions long.
· Epicondyle: projection located CRCA d 1 q abitualmnt condyle serves insrcion xa d point d ligamntos colatrals.
· The expanded proximal extrmo muxos d s Suel uses conocr cm long cabza.
· · A agujro s 1 hole in 1 use. ls agujros s channels when sn conocn cm long.
· - In the form d fist condils
· ·
- Shaped groove d pola: trochlear
Sn suprficis · the smooth movement adapted to articulacions aunq sta d ls x cartilages articulars covered cubrn q suprficis als d ls ls articulacions sinovials.
· · Main function: s 1 tjido live very consistnt, ls rsistnt to golps, prsions and tambienlastico pro traccions serves cm BARRR agrsions extrnas ant, cm lever arm and point d d d ANCLAJ músculs and tndons, cm stux bear and vitals organs protg cml heart, Pulmons, crbro, etc. also dl prmitl body parts movement ization d x to work or sports activities for individual stabl100dol dsplazamiento dl.
· · Formal axate locmtor causing the bear or sqlto structura and sta d rvstido x músculs dpndiendo your location.
· His acts vz cm rsrvorio d calcium (indispnsabl xa ls contraccions musculars, and vz intrvien in emostasia). intrvien in ematopoysis (d cells; formation Sanguine).
· Composition dl use: Compustar x motherland organic (64%), inorganic (34%) and 2nd (2%).
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· · Fibers: 95% d the mat. Organic.
· A) colagno i: s formed travs d tropocolagnos. s xq s caractrizan d xallas formaliptica placed.
· · Substance fundamntal: motherland in the form d gl. formed x:
· · A) 2nd
· B) protoglicanos: glicosaminglicanos sulfura2 (ialuronico, Kratina, and condrotil)
· C) salsa minrals: tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and calcium citrate.
· D) ions: ca, fl, f, Zn, Na, K, Mg.
· Structura dl mature use:ls in concentric sheets are 2 types d tji2 bears (compact sponjoso).
· · Tjido bear compact: we found in the part mdia d ls uses long, enveloping the t. sponjoso bear.
· · Form the shaft (the xcion uses long long d ls q Qbd enl epiphysis or MDIO d ls d ls xcions distals same). aparcn cm 1a + a solid and continuing its structura sv q only light microscopy.
· · The laminiyas s disponn d 3 for +:
· · Concntricamnt alrddor d 1 longitudinal vascular channel (through d yamado AVRS), Q Conti capilars, and vnulas postcapilars vcs artriolas, cylindrical shapes structure or sist + Yamadas OSTON avrsianos visibls the optical microscope.
OSTON · notif ls s angular shape forming disponn d ls intrsticials flxa2 sist + d ls x ls Yamadas OSTON cmnto globulins d (d matrix layer fiber pobrs bear no colagno q sn atravsa2 x hese canaliculs or not posenlmntos vasculars q sa-all sto s obsrvabl optical microscopy).
· X priostio on its dbajo dl suprficie intrna, yx dl dbajo located alrddor d s en2tio the form circunfrncia dl extndida tayo d ls laminiyas circunfrncials extrnas and intrnas (xallas to suprficie).
· Ls channels of effect if avrsianos communicate with the cavity or suprficie Mdula x transvrsals or oblique channels yama2 Volkman channels d q q vessels pose priostio Vienn dl and dl + grands en2tio ls d ls q q OSTON entryas communicate. Optical microscopy rconocrls xq s hard not roda2 d s are concentric sheets.
· Tjido bear sponjoso It hangs in the epiphysis d ls uses long and short uses ls planes. formed x OSTON DSOrganize sta.
· Tjido sponjoso enl intrior dl ematopoysis s gives (a sl st place red Mdula yama)
· Ossification d ls uses
• 2 types d ossification:
·
· · Ossification intrammbranosa (msnkimatosa)
· Intracartilaginous ossification (endochondral)
· Intrammbranosa ossification (msnkimatosa)
· · Consist in minralizacion dirct d 1 qs tjido conctivo highly vascular ossification extends rgulars d dsd cntros in cells; msnkimatosas ls ls q in fas prolifracion d difrnciacion exprimntan the 1st rd intnsa alrddor d 1A capillary.
· · Intracartilaginous ossification (endochondral)
· ·
Most d ls sn prforma2 umanos uses in cartilage during life FTAL prcoz, 1 use the long s the 1st variya d prfigurado x ialino cartilage, q replaced a 1a variya d msnkima condnsado similar, and both use prdicn how prcoz dl.
·
· · Crcimiento d ls uses
· · Most umanos uses stan d ls x prforma2 cartilage ialino; alg1s s Conds msnkima enl.
1 Parking 1 · tjido soft d gradually become used to comnzar the ostognsis, muxas vcs from d 1 cntro qs formaryemnto horn extends sqltico booked.
· Cntros d hese aparcn ossification along d 1 priodo prolonged muxos during embryonic life.
· Uses most d ls d s ossify several cntros; PROGRAMS ossification acia ls dsd s extrmos point, q sn enl cartilaginous r100 born.
· The shaft s primary ossification x 1 cntro cartilaginous epiphysis while q ls ossify d s cntros scundarios.
· Conform aumntan d ls epiphysis size, almost todol cartilage s replaced x use excpto 1st layer d ialino q prdura cartilage in articular and 1st zone suprficie + notif GruSa the shaft and the epiphysis.
· The epiphyseal plate prsistncia d sa aumnt use prmit ql d achieving horn length ls dimnsions usuals, enl ql momnto reaches madurz use.
· Tma 4. d gnralidads the Arthrology
· · The studio d sl Arthrology functional topography and the variation tmxal d ls articulacions.
· · The articulacions exibn difrncias about crcimiento, transmission D outside movements.
• The articulacions solid (not sinovials) s conocn cm sinartrosis d s so abituale grouped according tothe main type d d tjido conjunctive intrmdio: articulacions fibrous and cartilaginous.
· Both caractrizan d sinartrosis almost all 1ions cranals ls.
· The articulacions cavitated (sinovials) s with few dnominan synovial excpcions s ls located notif extrmos or other uses suprficis Dfine d endocondrals.
· · Gomphosis: the 1st s dntoalvolar the joint fibrous joint spcializada limited to the fixing dients in ls d ls d ls alvolars uses maxilars suprior and infrior
· Sindsmosis: fibrous joint in ls q s are suprficis bears 1idas x 1 ligamnto intros so abituale yqd Danger prmit 1 move.
· · Articulacions sinovials
· Ls uses stan 1Ì2 participants fibrous capsule and the 1st x suprficis bears corrspondients ls s not continue 1as with others. stan articular cartilage covers x, 1 strato d ialino spcializado with thickness cartilage and typology prcisa variabls, contact l notif stablc sas s suprficis cartilaginous coefi100t d 1 q tienne very bajo.l friction contact facilitated dslizant s q x LIKIDO synovial lubricant acts in alg1s cm aspctos.
• The fibrous capsule roda x complte the joint, the capsule sta x la mmbrana synovial lined, q suprficis also covers all non articulars ls including ls articulars not suprficis bears, and ls in part tndons and ligamntos dntro d ox complte the fibrous capsule, cml ombro and rodiya.
· Not cover other structura intraarticular synovial mmbrana sl x la mnisco.
· · Suprficis articulars:
· · Forma2 for the most part the 1st variety spcial d x ialino.l cartilage articular cartilage suprficie rsistnt to the 1st tien dsgast with low friction and lubricated, something comprsibl ylastica, x lo q sta movrs xar idalmnt adapted easily on the 1st suprficie similar q while capacity pose absorbr d ls d grands comprsion forces.
· · Fibrous capsule fibrous articulacions d ls:
· · Synovial mmbrana: ls lining articulars view not articulacions sinovials d ls, ls ls bags and pods tndinosas-all ls ls q rgions exist in 1 move notif suprficis opustas stan suprficialmnt lubricated x 1 LIKIDO similar to the clear d 1 d ew and absorbed x the mmbrana.
· Synovium (synovial lamina propria): formed x sinovicitos.ls funcions d ls d intimal synovial cells; comprndn laliminacion d d dtritos the joint cavity and sintsis d alg1s LIKIDO componnts dl dl sinovial.la composition sug synovial LIKIDO 1 dl plasma dialysate Sanguine , Q Conti Protina d drives especially mucin blood added, for the most part ialuronato.
· The funcions included provision synovial LIKIDO dl d 1 MDIO ambient LIKIDO with little variation dl p, enl suprficis articulars case d ls, d ls cartilage nutrition articulars, ls ls mniscos discs, along with lubrication and decrease d the erosion.
· Classification and movements articulacions sinovials d ls
· - Compljidad d the form most d 2 ls articulacions sinovials tienne suprficis (maxo and Embraer) and sn articulacions simpls. in some dryas, 1st sx suprficie complte convxa (maxo) and higher q suprficie opusta the concave (Embraer).
· · Gra2 d librt: articulacions qs muevn on 1 single example, has 1 degree d librt d moving on 2 ls qs muevn tienne ejs librt d 2 d gra2 movement and if SN 3 ejs tienne gra2 d librt 3.
· Rotation on 1 ej: 1iaxial: 1 d librt
· Movements indpndients alrddor d 1 ie biaxial: 2nd d librt
TNR articulacions puedn · some 3 º d librt horn.
· ·
·
· Classification gnral d ls
· Articulacions sinovials
· 1. articulacions flat: s is the apposition of effect d suprficis nearly flat, the 1st Liger s abituale curvature (art. vrtbral crvical arc).
• 2. trochlear pola or ginglymus: suprficis articulars pola Ueca d shaped and massive movement limitanl to 1 flat.
· 3. articulacions trocoids (pivots):
· Has 1 pivot bear in 1 Aniya
· Ostoligamntoso, q only prmit
• The rotation pivot alrddor dl d eg.
• 2. 4. condylar articulacions: biaxials. dlips articulates suprficie solid in 2 dl ejs suprficie spacing as the 1st sobr dlips Ueca also in 2 ejs corrspondients with antriors ls.
· Articulacions Bicondylar: 1iaxials.
· 5. d siya articulacions mount or snap rciproco: biaxials. tienne suprficis concavoconvxas, s ex and concave convxa in prpndicular enl
· 6. ball and socket joint or articulacions SFRO: formed the 1st x cabza gloubosity and 1st drink opusta. multiaxials.
· Mniscos and rodts: forma2 x fibrocartilage, 1ien2e to the joint capsule, where a and e inrvacion vascularization.
· The articulacions with mnisco s dividn in:
· · Mnisco complte: 1 mnisco divid compltamnt the joint capsule.
· Mniscos incompltos: not divide the joint capsule.
· · 1Ì2 stan ls rodts also the joint capsule and its scrcion s triangular.
· The increased capacity enables mnisco d ys articulacions movement in certain distributor prsions d ls qs ejrcn forces and on the joint.
· Joint capsule: fibrous cuff 1e q ls ys insrta pieces bears the prifria d ls suprficis articulars. s continuous withthe capsule Prioste.
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· Tma 5. d gnralidads the Miologia
· ·
The Miologia tien cm does the contraction rspusta mcanica Protina contractils d ls. tien inability rgnracion dl d qs replaced x tjido muscle fibers.
· · To the muscle cells; conocmos cm muscle fiber or muscle cell.
· There is 1 tjido smooth muscle: fiber d x aspcto formed with 1 Nuclear cntral fusiform. is found in pards d viscras. involuntary contraction músculs d sn (vgtativo).
· Heart muscle: fibers formed longitudinals d x aspcto STRI. with 1 1ico Nuclo cntral. only exist in the layer dl mdia heart.
· Sqltico muscle: fibers formed longitudinals d x aspcto STRI. several nucl. prifria stan d situa2 in the fiber. We find locmtor axate enl.
· Sistma nrviosos somtico (contraction volumtrica)
· Mcanico great job. very rich in mitochondria.
· Muscle sqltico
· Fasciculs + d ls pqños we get the muscle fiber. prsnta the 1st sccion fiber oliptica circular. tien d 10 - 100 microns d diamtro.
· Musculars fibers caractristicas d ls: s d the obsrvan Nuclo prifria CRCA.
• The cytoplasmic mmbrana sar s yama
· The cytoplasm s yama sarcoplasm
• The fiber formed x miofibriyas sta: s caractrizan x TNR aspcto STRI (s rpit along the entire length d)
· Miofibriya dntro d 1A are:
· · A dark band:band
• A clear band: band i
· ·
The a s divided into 2 x band clear.
· The dark zone d
· Up x 2 types d Protina contractils:
· · Actin: filamntos 1Ì2 entryos fine form the band q z.
· Myosin: filamntos grus.
· · The + s abundant myosin (55%) is very longitudinals filamntos. each consisting filamnto sta 1as x 180 molculas, grouped in the form d qs cabza.
· On the actomyosin s cause muscle contraction.
· Actin (23%) s divided into:
· F. actin
· G. actin
·
· · Tropomyosin b:
constituyenl 6% d ls d ls miofibriyas Protina.
· Troponin: rprsntanl 6% d ls d ls contractils Protina miofibriyas. formed x 3 1idads or molculas:
· Troponin t: s 1e to tropomyosin.
· Troponin i: s the 1st enzyme capable qs d inibir yama atp handle. ql prmit adp atp s become.
· Troponin c: d can d calcium ions bind ls.
· · RSTO d Protina Structurals:
· · Alpha actin: 1e entryas d ls molculas actin.
· Protina m: 1e d filamntos myosin. leads to the band m.
· Protina c: 1e d molculas actin.
· Protina i: rlacionada withthe magnsio
· · Muscle rlajado
· Intrpon notif s tropomyosin actin and myosin cabza d. s ncsita calcium, and thanks to sta d calcium uptake, x part d troponin c, d aumntan ls calcium ions, q ls active molculas d other 2 troponin.
Troponin I production · enrgia d ATP and ADP and troponin t s 1e and dsplaza to tropomyosin.
· S cabza d 1e the myosin with actin and causes loose enrgia sa d angulation of the 1st d cabza myosin.
· Find:
· · Clasificacions
· · 1. X as
· Long:
aqyos in q 1 ej prdomina ls ls sobr other 2. dsplazamientos get grands and great potncia tienne not.
· Eg sartorius
· Anxos: aqyos in ls q 2 ejs prdominan sobrl another. s located pards pose. abundants sn abdomn enl.
· Short: aqyos in no instance q ls ls prdominan sobr others. ised pqños dsplazamientos and has great potncia.
· Eg quadratus femoris, Supraspinatus
· ·
· • 2. X how belly dl
· Acinta2:
ls sueln fibers form 1 q xallas go belly + or - Grus. tienne dsplazamientos grands cause little strength and contraction d
· Fusiforms: ls fibers form 1 use + enl cntro anxo ls q in extrmos. dsplazamientos grands cause, the 1st great strength tend not very intnsa d contraction. eg coracobrakial.
· Triangulars: ls yevan the 1st dirccion oblique fibers. eg adductor mdiano.
· 3. D cm ls fibers to tndon s 1EN
· Pniform:
ls ls 2 x yegan fibers la2 to tndon formandol belly. eg rcto antrior dl cuadricps.
· Smipniforms:ls fibers yegan x 1 side only to tndon.
· Fibers in position sn transvrsal very potnts
Fiber · spiral s position in only 1 plane dsplazan
· Digastric: part d ls just over 1 fiber tndon acia intrmdio and then continue their inserts. eg Omoi
· Polygastric: if tienne tndon intrmdio + d 1.
• 4. Preferentially your Origne:
· Bicps: 2 origns or cabzas.
· Tricps: 3 origns or cabzas.
· Cuadricps: 4s origns or cabzas.
· 5. Preferentially your insrcion:
· Bicaudal: 2 insrcions.
· Tricaudal: 3 insrcions.
· Policaudal: + d 3 insrcions.
· · Spcializadas in insrcion STRUCTURES
· · Tndon: structura aggregate comprising x colagna qs d fibers placed xallas the greatest example to colocars dl tndon asi q sn q no fiber and little flxibls sn rsistnts to extnsion.
· Entryas found 1 cells; tjido lax and 1as (tnocitos)
· The whole dnomina endotndon sl, q sta sheath wrapped in 1a (pritnomio). dl prolongation pritnomio s qs withthe continuous withthe priostio confuses and other extrmo withthe primisio xl.
· Existn 1as qs tndinosas fibers yqs use mtn enl calcify when the 1ion s production and use of effect tndon, qs d Sarpy conocn cm fibers.
· The tndon has 1 cuff protg what extrno q, q sta x layer formed parietal and 1st layer intrna viscral qs 1st layer d synovium. entryas exist d 1 spacing yeno LIKIDO synovium.
· The dl tndon transmit muscle force to use the 1st pose great rsistncia have little extnsibilidad able d ys dslizars.
· Aponurosis:
Exhibit D · · sn tjido conctivo fibrous principalmnt d d colagna fibers.
• Acting tndons aplasta2 cm.
· Puedn star 1idas the use, or other skin aponurosis.
· D 1 extrmo other fibers musculars living room.

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