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ITEM 3. OVERVIEW osteology

· • Classification of bones:
· Long Bones: Typical of members, and its length reflects both the speed and power of motion, we characterized one of its axes predominates over the other 2. They are subject to great traction.
· Its tubular shaft with a central medullary cavity is widened (metaphysis) to the expanded articular ends (epiphysis), which have separate ossification centers and often multiple.
· Bones Short: They are characterized as no axis predominates over the other 2. They are subject, especially compressive forces are able to withstand much pressure, so they usually have a thin crust of compact bone, supported by an inner zone entirely trabecular. We usually find in the carpus and tarsus.
· Examples: Vertebrae, cuboid, navicular.
·-Irregular Bones: These include any bone not easily assignable to any of the above groups. They are usually at the base of the face
· Both the shape and bone structure are affected by genetic factors, metabolic and mechanical, and each bone represents the result of a long history through countless functional successive generations.
· · Depressions and elevations disrupt the bone surfaces.
· • A pit called depression. The depressions are known as long furrows.
• A notch is a notch and a real gap is a gap.
• A large projection is called apophyses, if long, thin spine or pointed the call.
• A projection is a rounded tuberosity or tubercle.
· Long elevations are called ridges.
· Epicondyle: projected located near a condyle that usually serves as insertion point for collateral ligaments.
• The expanded proximal end of many long bones are commonly referred to as head.
· · A hole is a hole in a bone. The holes are known as channels when they are long.
· - In the form of fist condyles
· ·
- Shaped groove pulley: trochlea
· The surfaces are smooth, tailored to the movement of joints but is covered by articular cartilage covering the actual surfaces of synovial joints.
· · Main function: living tissue is very consistent, shock resistant, pressure and tension but also elastic, serves as a barrier against external aggression, as lever arm and anchor point for muscles and tendons, and bone case and protects organs vital as the heart, lungs, brain. also allow movement in parts of the body to perform work or activities by establishing the displacement of the individual.
· · Form the musculoskeletal system or causing the bony skeleton and is lined with muscles depending on their location.
· Turn acts as a reservoir of calcium (essential for muscle contractions, while involved in hemostasis). Involved in the hematopoiesis (blood cell formation).
· Bone Composition: Composed of organic matter (64%), inorganic (34%) and H2O (2%).
· · Fibers: 95% of the mat. Organic.
·a) Collagen I: They are formed through tropocollagen. They are distinguished because they are placed parallel and elliptical shape.
· · Substance Fundamental: Matter in gel form. Established by:
· · A) H2O
· B) Proteoglycans: Glicosaminglicanos sulfur (hyaluronic keratin, and condrotil)
· C) minerals: tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and calcium citrate.
· D) Ions: Ca, Fl, Fe, Zn, Na, K, Mg.
· MATURE BONE STRUCTURE: In the concentric lamellae are 2 types of bone tissue (compact and spongy).
· · Compact bone tissue: We found him in the middle of the long bones and wrapping on t. spongy bone.
· · Form the shaft (elongated portion of long bones left in the middle of the epiphysis or distal portions thereof). They appear as a continuous solid mass and its structure is only an optical microscope.
· · The lamellae are arranged in 3 ways:
· · Concentrically around a longitudinal vascular canal (called the Haversian canal), which contains capillaries, postcapillary venules and sometimes arterioles, forming cylindrical structures called osteons or Haversian systems visible light microscopy.
· Between osteons are arranged at an angle forming the separate interstitial systems of osteons calls by cement lines (poor bone matrix layer of collagen fibers that are traversed by these tubules, or who have no vascular elements, all this is observable by light microscopy).
· Beneath the periosteum on its inner surface, and below the endosteum are located around the circumference of the shaft in extended form the outer and inner circumferential lamellae (parallel to the surface).
· Haversian canals communicate with each other with the surface or the marrow cavity by transverse or oblique channels called Volkmann canals that have vessels coming from the periosteum and endosteum larger than those of osteons that communicate with each other. Light microscopy is difficult to recognize because they are surrounded by concentric lamellae.
· Bone tissue: We found in the epiphysis of long bones, and short and flat bones. It consists of osteons disorganized.
• In the spongy tissue inside the hematopoiesis occurs (this place is called red marrow)
· Ossification of the bones
• 2 types of ossification:
· · Intramembranous ossification (mesenchymal)
· Ossification intracartilaginous (endochondral)
· Intramembranous ossification (mesenchymal)
· · Direct mineralization consists of a highly vascular connective tissue that stretches from regular ossification centers in the mesenchymal cells undergo differentiation phase of intense proliferation around a capillary network.
· · Ossification intracartilaginous (endochondral)
· •
The majority of human bones are preformed in cartilage during early fetal life, a long bone is prefigured by a rod of hyaline cartilage, which replaces a similar rod of condensed mesenchyme, and both predict the shape of the bone early.
· · Bone growth
· • The majority of human bones are preformed by hyaline cartilage, some is condensed in the mesenchyme.
· 1st is a soft tissue, gradually transformed into bone at the beginning of osteogenesis, often from a center that expands to form the complete skeletal element.
• These centers of ossification appear over a long period, many during embryonic life.
• The most bones ossify from several centers, ossification progresses from that point towards the ends, which are cartilaginous at birth.
• The shaft is ossified by a primary center while the cartilaginous epiphyses ossify secondary centers.
As the epiphysis · increase in size, almost all the cartilage is replaced by bone, except a layer of hyaline cartilage that persists in the articular surface and a thicker zone between the diaphysis and epiphysis.
• The persistence of the epiphyseal plate allows the bone to grow in length to reach the dimensions usual time when the bone reaches maturity.
· ITEM 4. OVERVIEW OF THE Arthrology
· •
The arthrology is the study of functional topography and temporal variation of the joints.
· · Joints exhibit differences in growth, transmission outside movements.
• The solid joints (synovial not) are called routinely sinartrosis and are grouped according to major type of intermediate tissue: fibrous and cartilaginous joints.
Both types of sinartrosis · characterize nearly all cranial joints.
· Cavitated joints (synovial) are called synovial joints with few exceptions are located between the ends or other defined areas of endochondral bones.
· · Gomphosis: The dentoalveolar joint fibrous joint is a specialized, limited to the fixation of the teeth in alveolar bone of the upper and lower jaws
· Syndesmosis: fibrous joint in which the bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament and that routinely allows a little movement.
· Bones participants are united by a fibrous capsule and the bone surfaces are not continued for one another. They are covered with articular cartilage, a specialized hyaline cartilage layer with precise thickness and type variables, and contact was established between these cartilage surfaces that have a very low friction coefficient. The sliding contact is facilitated by synovial fluid that acts as a lubricant in some respects.
• The fibrous capsule completely surrounds the joint capsule is lined by synovium, which also covers all non-articular surfaces, including non-articular bone surfaces, and the tendons and ligaments in part or wholly within the fibrous capsule such as shoulder and knee.
· Another structure uncovered by the intra-articular synovium is the meniscus.
· · Articular surfaces:
· · Formed mostly by a special variety of hyaline cartilage. The articular cartilage has a wear-resistant surface with low friction and lubricated, somewhat compressible and elastic, so it is ideally suited to move easily stop on a similar surface, while it has the capacity to absorb the large compressive forces .
· · Fibrous capsule of fibrous joints:
· · Synovial membrane: Tapestry non-articular areas of synovial joints, bags and tendon sheaths, all regions where there is a movement between opposing surfaces are lubricated by a liquid-like surface of the egg white and absorbed through the membrane.
· Synovial (own synovial sheath): Formed by sinovicitos.Las functions of synovial intimal cells include removing debris from the joint cavity and the synthesis of some components of the liquid sinovial.La synovial fluid composition suggests a plasma dialysate blood that contains protein derived mainly from blood added mucin, mostly hyaluronate.
· Synovial fluid functions include providing a fluid environment with little variation in pH and in the case of joint surfaces, nutrition of articular cartilages, discs and menisci, along with lubrication and decreased erosion.
· Classification and Movement of synovial joints
· - Complexity of the form: The majority of synovial joints have 2 surfaces (male and female) and are simple joints. In some, a surface is completely convex (male) and greater than the opposite surface concave (female).
· · Degrees of freedom: moving joints on a single axle, has a degree of freedom of movement, that moves on two axes have two degrees of freedom of movement and if there are three axes have three degrees of freedom.
· Rotation about an axis: Uniaxial: 1 freedom
· Independent movements around an axis: Biaxial: 2nd of freedom
· Some joints may have up to 3 ° of freedom.
· ·
· 1. Flat joints: This is the apposition between nearly flat surfaces, is usually a slight curvature (cervical vertebral arch section).
• 2. Trochlea, or pulley ginglymus: Articular surfaces pulley-shaped hollow and solid, limiting movement to a plane.
· 3. Trochoid joints (pivots):
Has a bone in a ring pivot
· Osteoligamentous, which only allows
• The rotation around the axis of pivot.
• 2. 4. Joints condyle: biaxial. Shaped articular surface of solid ellipse in 2 axes of space on a surface also shaped hollow ellipse in 2 axes for the previous ones.
· Joints Bicondylar: Uniaxial.
· 5. Saddle joint or reciprocal lace: biaxial. They concavoconvex surfaces, is convex and concave in the axis perpendicular
· 6. Spheroid ball and socket joint or joints: Formed by a head and a glass globoidea opposite. Multiaxial.
· Meniscus and rims: Incorporating fibrous, joining the joint capsule, where there vascularization and innervation.
· The meniscus joints are divided into:
· · Meniscus Full: A meniscus completely divides the joint capsule.
· Meniscus Incomplete: Do not divide the joint capsule.
· · Rims are also linked to the joint capsule and its secretion is triangular.
• The meniscus allows greater range of motion in certain joints and is the distributor of the forces and pressures on the joint.
· Joint capsule: fibrous cuff links the pieces of bone and inserts on the periphery of the articular surfaces. The capsule is continuous with the periosteum.
· • The myology has the function of mechanical response to the contraction of the contractile proteins. Has the failure of regeneration of muscle tissue is replaced by fibers.
· · A muscle cell known as the muscle fiber or muscle cell.
· There is a smooth muscle tissue: composed of fusiform fibers with a central nucleus. We found in walls of viscera. Muscles are involuntary (vegetative).
· Cardiac Muscle: Formed by longitudinal fibers of striated appearance. With a single core. It exists only in the middle layer of the heart.
· Skeletal muscle: Comprised of longitudinal fibers of striated appearance. With multiple cores. They are located on the periphery of the fiber. We found in the musculoskeletal system.
· Nervous system subjected (volumetric shrinkage)
· GREAT MECHANICAL WORK. Very rich in mitochondria.
· Of the smaller bundles we get the muscle fiber. The fiber has a circular or elliptical section. It has 10 - 100 microns in diameter.
· Characteristics of muscle fibers are observed near the periphery of nuclei.
• The cytoplasmic membrane is called SAR
• The cytoplasm is called sarcoplasm
• The fiber consists of myofibrils: are characterized by striated appearance (repeated along the entire length)
· Within a myofibril are:
· • A dark band: Band A
• A clear band: Band I
· •
The A is divided by 2 clear H band.
• The dark area of H
· Consisting of 2 types of contractile proteins:
· · Actin: Fine filaments that are bound to each band Z.
· Myosin: Thick filaments.
· • The most abundant myosin (55%) is very longitudinal filaments. Each strand consists of about 180 molecules, which are grouped in head shape.
• In the actomyosin muscle contraction occurs.
• The actin (23%) is divided into:
· F. Actin
· G. Actin
· · Tropomyosin B:
up 6% of the proteins of the myofibrils.
· Troponin: representing 6% of the contractile proteins of the myofibrils. Formed by 3 units or molecules:
· Troponin T: binds to tropomyosin.
· Troponin I: It is capable of inhibiting an enzyme called ATP handle. Allows the ATP becomes ADP.
· Troponin C: capable of binding calcium ions.
· · Rest of structural protein:
· · Alpha actin: une including actin molecules.
· Protein M: une myosin filaments. Leads to band M.
· Protein C: une actin molecules.
· Protein I: associated with magnesium
· · Relaxed muscle
• The tropomyosin is interposed between actin and myosin head. Calcium is needed, and thanks to this uptake of calcium, by troponin C, calcium ions increases, which activatesother 2 troponin molecules.
• The power of troponin I produces ATP and ADP and troponin T binds and displaces tropomyosin.
· It connects the head of myosin with actin and that energy release causes angulation of the head of myosin.
· Found:
· · 1. The shape
· Lengths:
Those in which an axis predominates over the other two. They get great travel and have great power.
· Ex: Sartorio
· Widths: Those in which two axes predominate over the other. Forming walls are located. They are abundant in the abdomen.
· Shorts: Those in which no precedence over the other axis. They perform maneuvers and has great power.
· Ex: Quadratus femoris muscle, supraspinatus
· ·
· • 2. By the way belly
· Strap:
The fibers are usually parallel to form a more or less thick belly. Causing large displacements and have little force of contraction
· Fusiform: spindle fibers form a wider at the center than at the ends. They cause large movements, has a large force of contraction is not very intense. Ex: Coracobrachialis.
· Triangular: The fibers have an oblique. Example: Adductor medium.
· 3. How the fibers join the tendon
· Peniforme:
The fibers come from both sides to form the belly tendon. Ex: Rectus quadriceps.
· Semipeniformes: The fibers only get one hand to the tendon.
· Crosswise fibers are very powerful
· Fibers positioned moving coil in a single plane
· Digastric: Part of the fibers just over an intermediate tendon and then go to its insertion. Ex: Omohyoid
· Polygastrica: If you have more of an intermediate tendon.
• 4. Depending on their origin:
· Biceps: two origins or heads.
· Triceps: three origins or heads.
· Quads: four origins or heads.
· 5. According to its insertion:
· Bicaudal: two insertions.
· Tricaudal: three insertions.
· Policaudal: more than three insertions.
· · Specialized structures at the insertion
· · Tendon: Structure structure composed of collagen fibers that are placed parallel to the axis of the tendon and the fibers are placed so that they are not flexible and low resistance to the extension.
· Among them we find a loose connective tissue and cells (tenocitos)
· The set is called endotendon, which are involved in a pod (Peritenomio). Peritenomio prolongation is continuous with the periosteum to be confused and at the other end with the perimysium.
· There tendinous fibers get into the bone and calcify when there is a union between tendon and bone, known as Sharpey's fibers.
• The tendon has an outer sleeve that protects it, which consists of the parietal layer and an inner layer which is a visceral synovial layer. Between them there is a space filled with synovial fluid.
• The tendon transmits muscle force to bone, is highly resistant, has low extensibility and is capable of sliding.
· Aponeurosis:
· · They are sheets of fibrous connective tissue, mainly collagen fibers.
• Acting as tendons crushed.
· They can be attached to the bone, fascia or other skin.
· From one extreme to another leaving muscle fibers.

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