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1 .- What is and an example, a DTE and DCE

DTE: are devices that generate or act as a source of digital codes. Modem, Hub, Switch
DCE: is the electronics that allows to adapt the binary data to the channel. PC, PLC, Router.
2 .- Advantages and disadvantages of parallel and serial transmission.
-Transmission Parallel:
advantages: It can increase the transfer rate.
Disadvantages: No need transmission lines, the cost is high.
-Transmission range:
advantages: The cost is lower.
Disadvantages: You need converters to carry out the communication.
3 .- That means that ASCII
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a character code based on the Latin alphabet. Uses 8 bits to represent characters although initially employed an additional bit (bit calved) which was used to detect errors in transmission. Almost all the systems current computer use the ASCII or a compatible extension to represent text and to control devices that handle text.
6 .- What is the source code.
A set of instructions written in a computer programming language, meant to be read by humans, and to be processed by any software tool or machine language instructions executable on the machine.
8 .- Name and explain the types of communication.
Simplex communication is one way, ie it is unidirectional.
Duplex: Both ends can be transmitters and receivers simultaneously. The data goes in both directions but not simultaneously.
Full Duplex: Both ends are transmitter and receiver, and data can be sent simultaneously.
9 .- What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous transmission.
-Synchronous: the transmitter and receiver need to use the same clock frequency. It is more effective because the information is transmitted uniformly, making it possible to achieve high speeds.
-Asynchronous: q needs a sign indicating the start (start bit) and another to indicate the end of the character (stop bit)
10 .- That extra bit of data is asynchronous.
Bit Part
Stop Bit
Bit Pariedad
11 .- In an example transmission point to point and multipoint.
Point - Point: From PC to PC
Multipoint: A server to multiple PCs
12 .- What is the modulation.
It put the information in a low frequency signal in a high frequency signal. The high frequency signal (carrier) amend some of its parameters, such modification being proportional to the amplitude of the low frequency signal (modulator).
13 .- What is the carrier signal and modulator.
Carrier signal: the high frequency signal that is unchanged.
Modulating signal: low-frequency signal changes the carrier signal
14 .- Explain the FSK modulation.
Frequency shift keying: modulation such a specific frequency assigned to each logical state of the signal to be transmitted.
16 .- What is the Hart protocol.
The HART protocol (High-way-Addressable Remote Transducer ") was originally developed by Rosemount Inc. and comprises digital information on the typical analog 4 to 20 mA DC.
17 .- Advantage Hart protocol with respect to the traditional 4 to 20mA.
The HART protocol enables bi-directional digital communication with smart instruments without disturbing the analog 4-20mA. Both signals, the analog 4-20mA and HART digital communication signals can be transmitted simultaneously on the same cable.
19 .- Name and explain the types of multiplexaión.
Time division multiplexing: a means to transmit two or more channels of information in the same communication circuit using the technique of time-sharing
20 .- which is to serve and line codes.
In telecommunications, a code online (baseband modulation) is a code chosen for use in a communication system for transmission purposes.
The online codes are often used to transport digital data. These codes are to represent the digital signal carried on its amplitude over time. The signal is perfectly synchronized thanks to the specific properties of the physical layer. The representation of the wave is usually done by a certain number impulses.
21 .- In that lies the Manchester and NRZ coding.
Manchester encoding, also known as Bi-phase coding-L, is a method of encoding binary signal power in which each bit time there is a transition between two signal levels. It is an auto-sync encoding, since each bit can obtain the clock signal, which enables precise synchronization of data flow.

In telecommunications, it is called NRZ because the voltage does not return to zero between consecutive bits of value one. By assigning a voltage level for each symbol simplifies the task of encoding a message. This is the theory that develops the code NRZ (non return to zero). Baseband encoding is considered a different arrangement of the bits of the signal on / off, thereby adjusting the signal transmission system used. For this type are used NRZ codes.
22 .- Difference of Rs232, 422
RS-422 and RS-423, are the replacement of standard RS-232, which bear higher transfer rates. They also allow backward compatibility, it is possible to connect RS-232 devices in them.
The RS-422 supports multipoint connections, it is also used on all Apple Macintosh computers.
23 .- Characteristics of speed, impedance nodes and distances of the RS232, 422 and 485
24 .- That means balanced.
Serial communication interface using a line voltage, comparing it with another to determine a mark (logical 1) and opposite tension to determine a space (logical 0).

25 .- Velocity most characteristic of the RS232
The speeds are: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 bps, being the most used speed of 9600 bps.
26 .- Connecting 232 to 422 and 232 to 485 (which must be done to make these converters)
RS232 - 485: You must perform the control of the RTS (Request to send)
27 .- How to generate a null modem
To generate a null modem must cross the lines of transmission and reception.
28 .- Types of transmission media.
Twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber optics, radio links, satellite.
29 .- Difference between UTP and STP
-STP: Cable in which drivers are twisted in pairs and each pair of these is covered by a metal layer is an interface that is more expensive than UTP, but over 100 Mbps
-UTP: unshielded twisted cable Called usually UTP cable has 8 threads forming 4 twisted pairs. It has been classified in different categories. From 1 to 5: 1 and 2 for voice, 3 to 5 for data.
30 .- That indicates the category of a cable.
One category of wiring is a set of transmission parameters that guarantee a specific bandwidth in a communications channel twisted pair cable. The categories define the standart wiring that must be met in building end to end structured cabling.
31 .- Velocities of each category.
Category 1: designed for telephone networks.
Category 2: 4 Mbps
Category 3: 10 Mbps
Category 4: 20 Mbps
Category 5: 100Mbps
Category 5E: 165 Mbps
Category 6: 1 Gbit
32 .- For the braiding.
33 .- What does Wire Map (Wiring Diagram), Length (Length), Attenuation, NEXT (Near End Crosstalk), ACR (Attenuation Crosstalk Ratio), Delay / Delay Screw (Delay / delay group), return loss and Far End Crosstalk (Extreme).
These are the parameters for certification Cat 5
34 .- What is structured wiring.
Is the wiring of a building to connect active equipment enabling integration of different services that depend on such data cabling, telephony, monitoring, etc..
35 .- The advantage of structured cabling.
The structured cable installations to avoid cable runs while using the structure.
36 .- What is a Patchpannel, Patchcord, making user.
-Patchpannel: Patch Panel Calls are used at some point in a computer network where all the network cables terminate. Panels can be defined as where the ports are located on a network, usually located in a rack or a rack of telecommunications.
-Patchcord: Patch Cord or cable connection is called the intermediate cable (UTP, FOR, etc.) used on a network to connect an electronic device to another.
User-making: is where the person using the computer, it connects to the network.
37 .- What is the horizontal and vertical wiring.
Wiring horizontal cabling from the floor distributor to the user posts.
Vertical Cabling: cabling distributors distributor floor of the building.
38 .- Standard EIA / TIA 586 A and B
Specifies two connection configurations 568A and 568B codes
39 .- Distance and speed on twisted-pair Ethernet.
40 .- In which is coaxial cable.
41 .- coaxial cable and connector for ethernet network.
42 .- Advantages and disadvantages of coaxial cable.
"You can stretch farther than the STP and UTP cable.
"It's cheaper than fiber optic
He has long used for all communication.
43 .- In fiber consisting
It is a means of transmission used in data networks, a very thin thread of a transparent material through which light pulses are sent to represent the data to be transmitted.
44 .- In what is the refraction and reflection.
Refraction: the change of direction experienced by a wave when passing from one medium to another material. Occurs if the wave is incident obliquely on the surface separating the two media.
Reflexion: the phenomenon whereby a ray of light striking a surface is reflected.
45 .- fiber types and their differences ..
Single Mode Fiber
"It requires a very direct route.
-Less dispersion
"Apropo for long distance applications (up to 3 kms)
"Use laser light source often in campus backbones for distances of several thousand meters
Multimode Fiber
"Several tours - sloppy
Nucleo-greater than the single mode cable.
-Allows greater dispersion and thus signal loss.
"He used to long distance applications (up to 2 km)
-Use LED as light source, often within the LAN or over a distance of approximately 200 meters within a campus network
46 .- Advantages of fiber.
Single Mode Fiber: higher bandwidth, since it is only one way and therefore DIVERGENCE modal disappears.
47 .- Types of fiber connectors.
48 .- What is the jumper fiber.
The jumper is the connector that is coupled to fiber optics.
49 .- Types of multimode fiber.
Fixed Index Multimode
Multimode graded index
50 .- Maximum distance of the fiber.
100 kms

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