The reformation wad a religious movement in 16 century Europe. It was caused by the following factors: Critics of the catholic churhc claimed that its leaders were wealthy and corrupt, and that priests did not carry out their duties properly, there was strong opposition to indulgences, which pardoned people their sins in return for money, humanist influence made people look for a more personal religion, based on their reading of the Bible. The Reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther, a german monk, wrote The Ninety-five Theses. In this text Luther strongly criticised the Pope, and as a result he was excommunicated from the cantholic church. Lutheranism was based on the following principles: Salvation was reached by faith in Christ and not through a person's actions, any christian could interpret and preach the world of god, there was only two sacrements (baptism, eucharist), Lutherans, later known as protestants, left the catholic church. The Church of England: In England, King Henry VIII broke with th ePapacy when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Henry became head of the Church of england. Anglicanism was influenced by the reformation, but also maintained some catholic traditions. Calvinism: A french theologian John Calvin was the founder of this movement, which was followed in Switzerland, part of france, the low countries and scotland. Calvinists believed in pedestination. People were designed to go heaven or hell from birth, and nothing could change this. The reformation led to a reaction by the CC called the counter reformation. The council of trent adopted a series of resolutions in 1545: it confirmed catholic doctrine and papal authority, it also confirmed the worship of the virgin and the saints, good works were necessary to achieve salvation, there were seven sacraments, the training of the clergy was improved and bishops were required to l ive in their dioceses.