/ʌ/ Vowel no. 10
Unrounded, Central, between open and half open
Quantity: short sound
Distribution: never Occurs in final open syllables with the exception of huh /hʌ/
Graphemes: (u) – Drum, jump, luck(o) – before nasals – come, done, Monk, money-before /v/ - love, glove, above -others – other, mother, another, brother (ou) – young, touch, trouble, double
Exceptions: does, Twopence, blood/food
Difficulties: strong Tendency to pronounce the grapheme (u) followed by an (r) as /ʌ/when It should be /ɜː/ instead – turner, burton, purple
/ə/ Vowel no. 12 (Schwa)
Unrounded, mid (halfway between close and open), central (halfway between front and Back).
Quantity: short vowel
Distribution: it may Occupy any position within the syllable
Schwa is Used for many vowels that have a reduced Vowel quality.
Graphemes: (a) – Allow, above, woman (e) – policemen, violet, murderer (i) – possible, legible(o) – ignorant, carrot (u) – support, suppose
(ai) – certain, Fountain(ar) – polar, particular(er) – mother, offer (ir) – confirmation (iou) – vicious, Delicious, gracious(ou) – colour, Callous
(ure) – figure, lecture, Future
Exceptions: cause in because (colloquial speech).
/əʊ/ vowel no.14
Quality: Narrow, back closing with A glide from /ǝ/ to /ʊ/ and quite noticeable lip-rounding at the end.
·English /əʊ/ may suffer variations in length according to The phonetic context:
Fully Long (ə:ʊ) – home, low, goal
Reduced (ǝ.ʊ) or (ǝʊ): boat, golden, soap
·Minimal pairs – Robe/rope grows/gross road/wrote
/ǝʊ/ may occupy any Position within the syllable. Initial: Oak. Medial: Boat. Final: Slow
DifficultiesThe tendency of native Speakers to produce /oʊ/ instead.
Graphemes (o) so, go, no o + cons + e – home, Stone, spoke(oa) boat, goal, soap(oe) toe, foe, doe (ou) soul, shoulder, Though (ow) know, show, tow