Fungi are eukaryotic living organisms that are Classified within the Fungi kingdom, including yeasts, molds and mushrooms. In General, fungi were previously classified within plants, however, they have Their own characteristics and peculiarities that allowed them to be grouped Within a specific kingdom, Fungi, different from that of plants. The main Characteristics to separate them from plants is that fungi are heterotrophic And their cell walls are not constructed from cellulose.
uThe sexual reproduction of fungi depends on the compatibility between the hifhas of the same individual, or Of a nearby individual of the same Species or with the genetic pool necessary for the recognition of the hifhas. Crossbreeding depends on compatibility, which is dependent on Genetics and chemical factors that may or may not determine proximity to a Compatible hyphore.
uIn fungi it is well known to speak Of asexual reproduction, since Many species present during their life cycle at least one vegetative or asexual breeding event. The common goal of this type of asexual reproduction of fungi is to generate a growth of the fungal mycelium or colonize a specific site or substrate, for which the genes needed To survive are already available.
The Ascomycota edge is the division of the Fungi kingdom in which a greater number of fungal species have been described, With the general purpose of grouping a large number of pathogenic species for Animals and plants. The phylum groups yeasts, but given the mycelium Morphology, it allows to group many species of filamentous fungi, due to the Divisions (septa) that occur in the hyphae, in turn, they can have a fruiting Body or not, and the spores can they present flattened (ascospores) and grouped In sacs called ascas.
Basidiomycota is the second largest division, As it currently comprises about 32,000 described species. The morphology of the Phylum is variable and many organisms have been classified in other divisions Of the Fungi kingdom, but relocated thanks to genomic studies. Characteristically, the group forms exospores in a fruiting body called Basidium and is generally called a mushroom.
FUNGI IN FOOD
Is the presence of fungi in food Good or harmful to health?
In general terms, it depends on The food in which it is found and the type of fungus in question
Some molds that can be found in food. Some have The capacity to form mycotoxins (poisonous fungi), substances found mostly in Cereal crops and nuts
Other mushrooms are used to make certain types Of cheese, in which they can be on their surface or inside. Veined blue cheese, Such as roquefort or gorgonzola, spores are introduced.
Mycotoxins They are toxic metabolites made by molds in Food. Ingestion of these foods, if the toxic substance is in sufficient Quantity, causes intoxication in man and animals
uThere are several types of mycosis Of the skin, which can be classified depending on the affected area and the Fungus that originates it: