Hardware y software

Classified in Computers

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Hardware: physical equipment used to process, store or transmit computer programs or data.

CPU: element that controls and executes the operations that take place inside the computer in order to carry out the automatic treatment of information.
CU (control unit): coordinates all the activities and elements of the computer, and a set of records, which are little storage spaces where the information that the CPU manages is temporarily stored.
ALU (arithmetic and logic unit): performs basic operations over data.
Memory: bits’ storehouse where all programs and all data are saved.
Random access memory: performs reading and writing operations, and allows to access random memory positions.
Read only memory: just allows reading operations and it contains special programs to load and run the computer’s start up. In this type of memory the information is permanently stored. The software that forms the ROM makes up the BIOS (basic input output system) of the computer.
Input/output units: communicate the CPU and the other internal components of the computer with the external components of the computer.
Buses: effective information exchange between the different components of the computer, connecting its internal components.
data:transmits information between the CPU and the memory or the peripherals.
direction: identifies the device to which the information is transmitted.
control: organizes and readdresses to the relevant bus the information that has to be transmitted.
The peripherals are hardware devices through which the user can interact with the computer.
Input: the device sends information to the internal memory of the computer (mouse, keyboard, scanner)
Output:the information travels from the memory to the device (monitor, printer)
Storage peripherals: keep the digital information even if the computer is switch-off.
Hard disk: storages a huge amount of information (≈ 1 TB).
Optical disk: there are 3 generations: CD(700 MB), DVD (8.4 GB) and Blu-ray (50 GB).
Flash memory: electronic non-volatile memory with different capacities (usually from 4 to 64 GB) which is presented in two different formats: USB memories (pen-drive) and SD (or memory) cards.
An interface is a mixed system (hardware + software) that makes possible the communication between the CPU and the memory or the peripherals. Network devices establish a connexion between computers through a network interface. There are two types of network interfaces: Ethernet and Wi-Fi.
Switches: communication between nearby computer, usually in the same room or building.
Routers: communication between distant computers, by transmitting information through the suitable path; within the network.
Every computer that is connected to the internet has an address, called IP (internet protocol) address; that it’s used to identify the computer on the 
Software: computer programs, procedures and possibly associated documentation and data pertaining the operation of the computer system.
System´s software: The operating system which controls device controlers, utilities and development tools.

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