High pressure

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•There Are four different forms of societies (described by anthropologists) that we Will be studying: bands, tribes, Chiefdoms, and states

•These Categories are useful as ideal types to begin to understand how societies Develop according to ecological, historical, economic, and political conditions

•These Categories represent a sociopolitical typology (Service 1962): they relate to The adaptive strategies (economic typologies) discussed in Chapter 11:

•Foragers Tend to have band organization (egalitarian)

Horticulturalists And pastoralists tend to live in tribes (egalitarian)

•Intensive Horticulture and agriculture is often associated with chiefdoms (ranked)

•States Develop through intensive agriculture (stratified)

•The Band and tribal leader contributes as much (or more) to the band’s subsistence Than anyone else, and lives no differently than other members of the band

Egalitarian: equal access to Resources (little stratification)

•While There are no economic rewards to being a leader, there are social rewards (prestige)

Ranked societies: societies Where individuals are ranked in status depending on their genealogical distance (relation) to the chief

•Closely-related People have higher rank (social status)

•Inequality (some have more wealth and resources than others based on status)

•Often Characteristic of chiefdom societies

•In Most chiefdoms, chiefs are chosen by seniority or ascribed status (eldest child Of the chief-of either gender- ascends to the position when the chief dies: Status by birth)

•In Others, a person can earn the status of chief by winning the favor of his kin Group, displaying generosity by redistribution feasts, and forming alliances With others of high status (achieved status)

Stratified societies: sharp Social divisions (classes or strata) based on unequal access to wealth and Power based on birth and achievement

•Noble (elite) and commoner classes

•Sharp Divisions between classes (status levels and access to resources)

•Characteristic Of state societies (and some advanced chiefdoms)

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