UNIT 10: THE NEW WORLD ORDER 1. THE NEW WORLD ORDER AND ITS PROBLEMS 1.1. MULTIPOLARITY OF POWER. The end of communism in 1991 brought a new world order, with the USA as the sole world superpower. Itshegemony is evident in: the influence of its diplomacy, the presence of its military around the world and its intervention in several conflicts since 1990s.Last decade: tendency towards a greater multipolarity due to the opposition towards USA hegemony Some emerging countries are establishing themselves on the international scene: political and economic growth In the future countries like: China, India or Brazil will be ready to compete with the USA. 1.2. THE PROBLEMS OF TODAY’S WORLD democracies neeed to: Find giving equal opportunities to everyone,Face the loss of faith in political parties and lack of interest in politics (low participation rate in elections) .
Authoritarian regimes still exist: Persecution, imprisonment, torture and executions on the grounds of religion or race are common. Areas of tension have multiplied since the end of the Cold War in: Africa, the Near East and Southeast Asia. There are frequent confrontations caused by territorial, political, economic, religious or ethnic disagreements. Types of conflict: Between neighbouring countries(> ex. India and pakistan, north korea and south korea.) Civil wars> ex. Yugoslavia, indonesia.2. THE TRADITIONAL POWER TRIAD 2.1. THE DOMINATION OF THE USA The USA remained the sole world power after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The US declared its intention to: defend peace, democracy and freedom and Redefined its strategic priorities (military presence) to reduce it in europe and Increase it in the Caribbean, the Pacific, the Indic and the Middle East to protect its oil reserves in the Persian Gulf. Since 1990 the USA has been involved in a number of controversial military interventions It has intervened to: Defend its interests and influence • The Gulf War, The invasion of Afghanistan and the invasion of Iraq.
Obey UN resolutions that seek to reestablish peace • Western Sahara, Mozambique and Somalia. Develop humanitarian missions • Yugoslavia, Haiti and Rwanda 2.2. THE ECONOMIC POWER OF JAPAN Japan is an important economic power, even though its growth has suffered since the 1990s. Reasons of this growth: 1The competition of other Asian economies . 2 The decline of its internal market. 3. The situation of its banks that losses after being involved in risky financial operations.
China and Japan are the great economic powers of the Asia-Pacific region.
Japan participates in international organizations :APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Promotes free trade and economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific area . ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations) : Works to improve the social and economic development of its members and maintain the peace and stability of the region. Japan also claims certain islands it disputes with China, Russia and South Korea. Its imperialistic past, which lasted until the end of the Second World War, explains its cold relations with them.