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2.3. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EU The European Union is an economic world power and is ranked first in international commerce. 

It is allied to the USA, even though it has criticized some of its military interventions. It has regularly participated in UN peace missions.

 Europe’s international political influence is weakened because its members are sometimes in disagreement.  A common international policy would help to solve this problem. 5. RUSSIA AND THE OLD COMMUNIST BLOC 5.1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION After the dissolution of the URSS, Russia became a regional power. However... : It retained most of its nuclear weapons, It remained a permanent member of the UN Security Council AND It was accepted in international organizations. Ex. The Group of Eight (G-8) .Process of transition to a democratic system in Russia (first democratic elections) 1993-2000: Boris Yeltsin 2000-2008: Vladimir Putin  2008-2012: Dmitri Medvédev 2012-1018: Vladimir Putin .The difficulties have been caused by: the excessive political power of the president and the corruption of certain power groups, which are backed by mafia-type organisations.The economic transition to the capitalist system initially brought: A fall in production, a rise in inflation and unemployment, a drop in the standard of living and greater social inequaility. The situation has improved since the beginning of the 21st, due to the export of oil and gas. This has helped Russia to:recover part of its internationalinfluence . Have closer relations with China, India, the EU and Iran.5.2. POST- COMMUNIST COUNTRIES The states that seceded from the USSR are in different situations, according to:  Geographic al factors , Cultural factors and Their history with Russia

Ukraine and belarus> political tensions between the russophiles and the pro-western groups. Armenia, georgia and azerbajian> ethnic tensions and disputes over the borders.Central asia, such as Kazakhstan>Under authoritarian regimes.Chechnya1.Tried to gain its independence from Russia in 1991. 2The Russian army suppressed the revolt after a violent confrontation . 3.Since then, pro-independence guerrillas have tried to undermine Russia control with terrorist attacks. Countries in central and eastern europe: East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic and Slovakia , adopted democracy and a capitalism>Economies not as strong as other Western countries . Some of them have joined the eu and nato>tension with russia, due to its loss of influence in the area. Geopolitical conflicts in Yugoslavia. . 1dissolution of the communist regime in 1980. 2. Ethnic and religious confrontations in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia, Yugoslav wars. 3.The Dayton Treaty (1995) divided the territory into five independent states and Bosnia-Herzegovina into two federations. 4There are still points of friction and in 2006 Montenegro proclaimed its independence from the Serbia . 5. Kosovo took the same path.



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