6. THE RISE OF THE ASIAN COUNTRIES 6.1. CHINA: THE BIRTH OF A GREAT POWER. After Mao Zedong, the Popular Republic of China was ruled by Deng Xiaoping (1978-1997)He promoted economic reforms “market socialism”, which combined communism with some elements of capitalism. 1he dismantled the communes. 2. He distributed the land among the peasants. 3. He allowed the peasant to sell their own products. 4. He encouraged the export of cheap products to foreign countries. 5. He opened china to foreign trade and investments.Xiaoping’s successors, Jiang Zeming and Hu Jintao, have followed the same policy. The result has been the spectacular growth of the Chinese GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and its exports. Despite China is one of the greatest powers in the world... Social inequality has grown Its political system is undemocratic. Geopolitically, its main conflicts concern: Taiwan, which China considers part of its territory Tibet, conquered by China in 1951, had fought for independence led by Dalai Lama. 6.2. THE NEW INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES . South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan as the Asian tigers because they have achieved industrial development. Since the 70s: They produced and exported electronic products with competitive prices due to their reduced production costs. 1997-98: they have suffered from financial instability and competition from other countries in the region. 6.3. THE EMERGENT ASIAN POWERS India enjoyed sustained growth from 1980 due to: The service industry, IT, car manufacturing and pharmaceutical indust ries.There are still serious internal and external conflicts due to ethnic and religious tensions in the province of Kashmir: Leaders were Hindu and the majority of the population were Muslim. >After WW2 and the liberation from the British they could choose to join Pakistan or India. >The leaders chose India and the conflicts with Pakistan began. >Other Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam >Are undergoing a process of modernization >which has been helped by the economic profits of their exports . 7. THE MUSLIM WORLD Muslim World: countries where Islam is the main faith.It has acquired a special strategic importance due to the oil reserves around the Persian GulfSaudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and United Emirates .Most of them have authoritarian governments, which means: Restricted freedom, economic imbalances and deep social inequalities.This is why in there have been uprisings of the population in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria.Dictatorships have been overthrown in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya after a traumatic Civil War.7.1. RECENT ARMED CONFLICTS The Gulf War (1990-1991) The Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. >An international coalition led by the USA under UN mandate liberated Kuwait.>it imposed an embargo on Iraqi oil. The Invasion of Afghanistan (2001) Consequence of the attack on New York and Washington on 11 September 2001 organized by Al-Qaeda >It was based in Afghanistan and supported by the Taliban government.>A coalition of troops from the US and allied countries overthrew the Taliban regime >A provisional government was established in its place. The Invasion of Iraq (2003) There was a fear that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (threat to world peace) >The USA, the UK and other allied countries, including Spain, overthrew Saddam Hussein >A new government was established in Iraq .