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2.2. THE HEGEMONY OF THE USAThe USA had two main political parties:The Republican (centre-right) and The Democratic (centre-left) Harry S. Truman and Dwight Eisenhower (1945-1960) Established a severe anticommunist foreign policy . How?Creating a “blacklist” of communist sympathizers In the trade unions  Among Hollywood actors, screenwriters and directors . John F. Kennedy became president (1961) and tensions eased. The civil rights movement: equality of rights for the black population. Its main leader was Martin Luther King. The American economy grew significantly after the war. Transport and tourism+agriculture and industry+commerce and finance= powerful multinacional companies spread around the world.2.3. THE EVOLUTION OF JAPAN When the war ended Japan was occupied by the USA >America forced Japan to introduce...  A parliamentary monarchy • Democracy• Trade unions • Legal equality between men and women. >In 1951 Japanese sovereignty was restored . The japanese economy: collapsed after the war but improved rapidly thanks to the help of the usa and ists specialization in high tecnology products.The Japanese miracle was possible due to: The high investment of the USA.The attitude of the Japanese people who accepted:  Long working hours .Low salaries and Short holidays. 3. THE CAPITALIST WORLD: WESTERN EUROPE (1945-1973) 3.1. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS. Countries in Western Europe: democratic political system.  Except the dictatorships of Spain, Portugal and Greece until 70s .Weak European economy after the war, but it recovered quickly thanks to:  Marshall plan: consisted of large donations and loans at very low interest rates.  The European introduction of reforms in the monetary and financial systems. How ?Controlling inflations  Intervening by nationalizing industries and services. 3.2. THE ORIGINS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION After WW2, general consensus: rivalries between European countries had to end to avoid more wars. >Winston Churchill presented the idea of a United States of Europe that could compete with the USA and the USSR.>Robert Schuman, the French minister of foreign affairs, proposed a common market for coal and steel (most important raw materials for the weapons industry) >Schuman stated that the intention was to “make war not only unthinkable, but materially impossible”.This is considered the foundation of European integration Europe Day is celebrated on 9 May to commemorate this day.

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