4. THE COMMUNIST WORLD (1945-1982)
4.1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS • Political system: Dictatorship of proletariat The common Interest was more important than individual rights and freedom
• Countries created Institutions that joined executive and legislative powers and only permitted the Existence of a single party: the communist party. Economy was controlled by the State: Collectivized the land Nationalized industry and services Controlled the Market and prices.
•1945-1960, It recovered from the crisis caused by the war. ¡ After 1960, the economy slowed Down, due to: 1. • Low productivity 2. • Lack of economic incentives to work 3. • Technology in the Eastern bloc was far behind Western countries 4. • Lack of Consumer products led to the rationing of some goods
•Communist Society was: ¡ In theory: egalitarian à classless ¡ In practice: important Differences between: ¡ The communist party that controlled the state bureaucracy ¡ The rest of the population ¡ The standard of living for most of the population Improved after the war, but not to the level of Western countries. ¡ The state Guaranteed: 1. Full employment 2. Covered basic needs (education and health) 3. Improved public services although the equality of these services was Poor.
4.2. THE COMMUNIST COUNTRIES Communist bloc (Soviet Union):Central and Eastern Europe (Soviet troops after the WW2) Revolutions in China (1949) Revolution in Cuba (1959) Some parts of Asia (North Korea and Indochina) Some parts of Africa (Angola and Namibia)
The Soviet Union
Stalin Died in 1953 Khrushchev started a process of deStalinization to fight the abuse Of power and cult of personality. He allowed some freedom of speech and thought. Brezhnev stopped all reforms started by Khrushchev when he died in 1964.Its Satellites: In European countries controlled by the USSR The state repressed Revolts and claims of independence Ex. Revolutionary attempts in Hungary (1956) And Czechoslovakia (the Prague Spring of 1968)
Communist China ¡ After the WW2, a Civil War started in China. ¡ Mao occupied the Tibet (1950) The nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, who was leader of the Republic The communist rebellion led by Mao Zedong.
Mao Achieved the victory in 1949 The communists led by Mao created the Popular Republic of China Nationalist government took refuge in Formosa creating the Nationalist Republic of Taiwan. ¡ Characteristics of the Maoist political System: ¡ Fierce repression of the opposition ¡ A strict control by the Communist party of all aspects of life. ¡ Cultural Revolution (1966-1971) forced People to abandon their traditional ways of life and change their habits and Beliefs ¡ Sometimes individuals were forced to go out of their villages and Professionals such as doctors and engineers were sent to work on farms. ¡ The Chinese economy adopted a system of collectivization, and was organized in Communes. ¡ Each commune was selfsufficient and combined collective work in Agriculture and industry. ¡ The economic plans to develop heavy industry in 1958 Received the name of the “Great Leap Forward”.
5.1. EXTREME TENSION (1947-1956) ¡ The blockade of Berlin: ¡ Berlin was in the area Occupied by the Soviets ¡ After the war it was divided into four: British, French, American and Soviet. In 1948 the allies unified their areas of Occupation Stalin responded by blocking access to West Berlin. The allies Provided the population with food and essential goods by means of plans The Blockade was ended in 1949.
The Korean War: • After the war the Peninsula of Korea was divided through the middle by the 38º North parallel. THE NORTH Communist government controlled by the USSR THE SOUTH anticommunist Dictatorship under American control The North started a war invading the South: China and Russia supported the North The USA helped the South It ended in 1953 With the reestablishment of the previous frontier.