-Mother Ann Lee was the founder of the shaker movement.
- Celibacy, communal life, confession of sin
-Believed in full gender equality
- Father John Humphrey Noyes established the society
-A religious based, socialist group of about 250, dedicated to living as one family and to sharing all property, work, and love.
-Known as the perfectionists/Bible communists
-Practiced Complex Marriage. Every woman was the wife of every man and every man was the husband of every woman.
-Robert Owen founded the society
-Utopian socialist philosophy aimed for radical reform of society and is considered a forerunner of the cooperative movement
-New Harmony- less successful utopian experiments. Owen believed that an individual’s character was shaped by his or her environment.
American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women’s rights movement.
A major slave revolt in 1822 “the rising” Failed to happen in Charleston, S.C.
-Denmark Vesey “Telemaque” was a free black former slave in Charleston, South Carolina who came up with the plan.
was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831.-Nat Turner was the leader of the rebellion and killed up to 65 people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the American south.
2. Wendall Phillips
3. Frederick Douglas
4. James Horton
Theodore Dwight Weld
Arthur and Lewis Tapan
James G. Birney
Grimke sisters (Sarah and Angelina)
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
David Walker’s Appeal
Rev. Henry Highland
Dr. Martin Delany
American Colonization Society and Liberia
became the 9th president (oldest to be inaugurated) during the 1840 election. His inauguration only lasted a month due to his death. “Longest inaugural speech, shortest term in office.”
Was the Vice president during William Henry Harrison’s presidency. Becomes President after Harrison’s death in 1841.
Marked the first U.S. Armed conflict chiefly fought on foreign soil. It pitted a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionist-minded administration of U.S. President James k Polk, who believed the United States had a “Manifest destiny” to spread across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. Mexico lost about one third of its territory, including all of present day California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.
12th President, known as a national war hero for his battles in the Mexican War. He led the nation during its debates on slavery and southern secession.
“Old fuss and feathers”Won the war and captured Mexico city
“6 days to Sacramento”
-was a stagecoach service. It carried passengers and U.S. Mail from Memphis, Tennessee and St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco, California. The routes met at Fort Smith, Arkansas, and then continued through Indian Territory, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Baja California, and California ending in San Francisco.
Major George H. Crossman recommended to congress in 1836 that the Army should experiment with the use of camels since the chief desert problem for the traditional military animals was lack of water and forage. Camels could go longer without water than horses or mules.
2,200 mile historic east-west large wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon
Was an emigrant trail of about 2,000 miles across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri river towns to what is now the state of California.
was an American frontiersman, trapper, soldier and Indian agent who made an important contribution to the westward expansion of the United States.
-was an American military officer, explorer, and politician who became the first candidate of the anti-slavery republican party. He led four expeditions into the American west, that era’s penny press. During the Mexican war Fremont took control of California from the bear flag republic in 1846.
1. California admitted as a free state.
2. Popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah territories
3. Abolish the slave trade in the national capital.
4. Enactment of a strict fugitive slave law.
Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
Former members of the Whig party met to establish a new party to oppose the spread of slavery into the western territories.
the right of slave owners to take their slaves into the western territories, thereby negating the doctrine of popular sovereignty and severely undermining the platform of the newly created Republican party.
1. Slaves were legal property
2. No law could be made that discriminated against the property owners
3. Afro-Americans were not citizens of the United States
4. Slavery was allowed in all territories
became the 16th president March 4, 1861, issuing the emancipation proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the confederacy in 1863.
John and a group of his supporters captured citizens and seized the federal armory and arsenal. Had hopes that the local slave population would join the raid and through the raids success weapons would be supplied to slaves and freedom fighters throughout the country. Was held down by local militia and took refuge. Was captured and put on trial and charged with treason against the state of Virginia, murder, and slave insurrection. He was then sentenced to death.
2. Liberty Party
3. Free Soil Party
4. Anti-Masonic Party
5. American (Know Nothing Party)
6. Northern Democrats
Abraham Lincoln of Illinois and the Republican Party
John C. Breckemidge of Kentucky and the Southern Democrats
John Bell of Tennessee and the Constitutional Union Party
Was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862. Encouraged western
Migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were acquired to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land.
was issued by President Abraham Lincoln. As the nation approached its third year of bloody Civil War. The proclamation declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.”
18th president, worked closely with Lincoln to lead the inion army to victory over the confederacy in the American Civil War.
was an American soldier who served as a general in the union army during the American Civil War, for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the “scorched earth” policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the confederate states.
1. Naval blockade
2. Consolidate control of Border States
3. Cut the Confederacy into segments
was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and the best-known Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee.
1. Seize Washington City
2. Move into Maryland and Pennsylvania
3. Cut northeast off from the northwest
4. Force the Union government to sue for peace
was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington, D.C. It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The Union forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by a disorganized retreat of the Union forces.
was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6-7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union army under Major General Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the river, where Confederate forces under Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and Pierre G. T. Beauregard launched a surprise attack on Grant's army.
fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It is the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with a combined tally of dead, wounded, and missing at 22,717.
was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North.
was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Vicksburg led by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River
was one of the last battles of the American Civil War. It was the final engagement of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, after the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, retreated west, hoping to join his army with the Confederate forces in North Carolina.