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role of lang:Poland had been partitioned at d end of d 18th century by d Great Powers, Russia, Prussia and austria.Even though poland no longer existed as an independent country but national feelings were kept alive through d language.1.D emphasis on language was made not just 2 recover an ancient national spirit but 2 carry the modern nationalist messafe to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.2.After the russian occupation of poland,polish lang was forced out of schools and the russian lang imposed everywhere.3. Many membs of the clergy in poland began to use lang as a weapon of national resistance.4.Polish was used for church gathering and all religious instructions.5.The use of polish thus came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against russian dominance.

POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION OF ITALY: like germany, italy too had a long history of political fragmentation.  Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multination,habsburg empire.During the middle of the 19th century,italy was divided into several states of which only one,Sardina Piedmont was ruled by an italian princely house.The north was under austrian habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the bourbon kings of spain. Even the italian language had not acquired one common form and it still had many regional and local variations.

Defeat Napoleon: russia prussia austria britain;conservatives wanted the monarchy and the church;young italy was a secret society formed my guiseppe mazzini to establish a unitary italian republic;britain france russe vienna congress of 1815;austrian chancellor duke metternich hosted the congress of vienna;johann gotfried herder was a german philospher.He claimed that true german culture was to b discovered through folk songs,poetry and dances. Ottoman Bismarck was the tru architect of germany who played an imp role in the unification of germany. Policy blood and iron;nation state is the one in which majority of citizens come together to develop a sense of common identity and shared history of descent. Unification of italy guiseppe mazzini, garibaldi,count camillio de cavour;prussian zollverien: abolish tarrif barriers. Prussian king william 1 became emperor after german unif; act of union1707 signed bet eng and scotland a s a result of which the uk of great britain came into beingh. Now eng could impose its influence on scotl;napoleonic code:simplification of administrative divisions, improvement in transport and communication systems, removal of guild restrictions, standardisation of weights and measures and introduction of common currency were major changes in the system. The right to property was also secured.

In 1845 the silesian weavers revolted against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.Dissatisfied and resented weavers emerged from their homes on4 june and marched in pairs up to the mansion of their contractor demanding hgh wages. When the contractor showerd reluctance a group of them forced their way into the house, smashed his elegant window panes, furniture, porcelain,etc. Another grp broke into the store house and plunderes it of supplies of cloth which they tore to shreds. The contracctor fled with his family to neighbouring village which ultimately refused to shelter sucha person. He returned 24hrs later having requisitioned the army. In exchange that followed, 11 weavers were shot.

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