Text: refers to a written or taped record of a piece of communication
Discourse: refers to a piece of communication in context
Text analysis: is the study of the formal linguistic devices that distinguish a text from random sentences.
Discourse analysis: it study the text-forming with reference to the purposes and functions for which the discourse was produced and how users communicate in context.
Transactional lg: it is used to obtain goods and services
Interpersonal lg: which is used for socializing.
Spoken and written lg, both modes are used to communicate.
COHESION: property of the text. How ideas, structures are connected. It shall be clear
COHERENCE: internal neurological process that we carry out
Reference: anaphoric: previously mentioned (backwards) Cataphoric: points the reader or listener forwards, sometimes for dramatic effects. Personal (pronouns and determiners-he) Demonstrative (determiners and adverbs-this) Comparative: (adjectives and adverbs-these seats and the other seats) THIS (ideas-facts- demonstrative) THAT(objects-people-personal)
Substitution: nominal (noun-one-ones) verbal: (verb- do-does- don`t-doesn`t) clausal: ( a hole - ia going to rain? I think SO)
Ellipsis: some structural element is omitted. Nominal: (my kids…. Both) verbal: (have you been….Yes, I have) clausal: acorta y cambia todo
Conjunction: joins within one sentence. Adversative: (however, on the other hand) moderates or qualifies the info in the first. Additive: (and) addition of info. Temporal: (first, then) events related in time. Causal: (because) cause and consequence
Lexical cohesion: two words related in terms of meaning. Reiteration includes: Repetition: (newspaper-newspaper) synonyms: (slope-decline). Superordinate: (pneumonia-illness). General word: cambia todo con otra palabra
Communicative functions: need 6 elements: senders (adresser) context, message, channel,code, receiver (adressee)
referential: show things or facts, to inform. Emotive: poems,advertisement, express emotion. Conative: imperative sentences. Phatic: for contact, to know whether the chanel works or not, emogis.Metalingual:use lg for learn (teachers). Poetic: focus on message (fake hurts real)