Homophoric reference

Classified in Teaching & Education

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  • Modes of discourse:

  • Talk or spoken discourse comprises everyday conversations and other types of dialogues, such as parliamentary debates, board meetings, etc.

  • Text or written discourse defines the large set of discourse types, comprising, for example, news reports in the newspaper, textbacks, advertising, etc.

  • Typology of discourse: They define sets or classes of discourse types. We may use discourse modes to define genres --- Conversations, poems, reports, etc.

  • Order and form:

  • The formal structure of sentences in discourse is not independent of the rest of discourse for the context.

  • Meaning:

  • Is the abstract sense of discourse, which is called semantic representation.
    Meaning is something assigned to a discourse by language users, and that process is known as"understanding", "comprehension", or "interpretation". In this case, meaning is associated with the mind of users.

  • Discourse semantics studies the structures and relations between propositions, which are the meaning of a whole clause or sentence. Propositions are influenced by previous propositions in text or talk (discourse relativity principle).

  • In discourse there exists the semantic notion of coherence. We may study the  coherence relations for sentences that immediately follow each other ( the micro level of analysis) but also for the meaning of discourse as a whole (the macro level of analysis).

  • At the micro level we found that propositions must refer to events or situations that are related, here we have the notion of reference.

  • At the macro level we found topics or themes. They are the global meaning of discourse or the overall coherence.

  • Style:Is usually a context-bound variation of the expression level of discourse. We may speak about the same topic or events (referents) and do so with different local meanings (details).

  • Rhetoric:It focus on special structures (figures of persuasion) at all discourse levels that attract attention.

  • Schemata: Also called superstructures. In an abstract sense we may analyse a discourse in terms of a number of typical formal categories and their specific order and function.

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