-ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS : Enlightenment thinkers believed reason was the only way to understand and explain the world. It was a direct criticism of medieval tradition and religous theocentrism. Voltaire defended the freedom of thought and tolerance as a basis for human interaction. They had an optimistic view of nature as a source of justice and goodness. They believed in progress and that reason and human will could transform society.
-ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM : European monarchs were influenced by the Enlightenment and some tried to introduce its ideas about progress. They promoted the rationalisation of administratio, education reforms and the modernisation of the economy. ( Fredrick the Great of Prorussia, Maria theresa of Austria). The idea of enlightened despotism is summarised in the prhase of " All for the people, nothing by the people ".
-SOCIAL CHANGES: They opposed stratified society and argued that no oneshould inherit prestige or privilage or be entiled to them becouse of their actions. -ECONOMIC CHANGES : They opposed state regulations and defended free trade (economic liberalism). -POLITICAL CHANGES : Montesquieu proposed the separation of powers, Rousseau expresed the need for a social contract, Voltaire defended the need for a parliament.
- A NEW DYNASTY RULES SPAIN : Charles ll, the last of habsburg king died in 1700. The appointment of the french prince Philip Of Bourbon as his heir resulted in the war of Spanish succesion. The war of spanish succesion (1701-1714) was an internal conflict in Spain, but it also had an international dimension. It was caused by a conflict between two pretenders to the throne : Philip Of Bourbon and Charles Of Habsburg.
- THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE 17 CENTURY : In the 17 century
the Stuart dynasty wabted ti givern without parliament and proceded to arrest and execute opponents, this led to a conflict between the supporters of parliament and the monarchy. A) In 1649 King Charles l was executed and reìblic was proclaimed under the leader ship of Oliver Cronwell. B) In 1689
the absolutist policy of the new monarcj James ll caused a second revolution
-MANORIALISM : The lords recived rents and taxes paid
by the peasants. - BOURGEOISIE : A social class with social behavior and political view. - TRIANGULAR TRADE : was a comercial rute that was stablished in 16 century. - DECRETO DE NUEVA PLANTA
: They were a number of decrees stablishe by Philip V between 1707 1716. - STRATIFIED SOCIETY : Was a civic inequality, the clergy and the nobility had rights. -THIRD STATE : is a political pamphlet writing in 1789 after the french revolution