What is a process?the description of what change happens, along what timeline. Remember that you can think of constancy as ‘the lack of change’
Can you identify cause(teacher math anxiety), mechanism (apparatus, method, tool, how do we get from cause to outcome?) outcome (girls math achievement process) results, change/no change) of a given process and explain your answer?
What is longitudinal research?
Following the same kids or others over time
Why is it also sometimes referred to as repeated measures?
Because you give them the same measures over and over.
What kinds of questions can be answered with longitudinal research?
How does learning over the school year relate to the teachers’ anxiety levels?
Helps to explain individual differences between people. Also helps to investigate constancy
What is cross-sectional research?
Kids of different ages compared to one another
Follow the same kids over a short period of time, measuring them often
--“catch” the process as it unfolds
What happens right before children master 3D shapes?
Do you “get it” all at once like insight, or does performance increase gradually?
No effects of gender or condition (photos vs. Foam shapes), and no interactions involving those variables.Main effect of age→performance improves with age, performance improves by age; kids seem to be doing quite well (everyone is far above chance.) You can think of this as zooming in on a small process
Themes of Child Psychology:
Nurture = Environment
Nature = Genes
All human characteristics are created through interaction of genes and environment.
The single most basic question about child development is how nature and nurture interact to shape the developmental process.
Nature refers to our biological endowment, especially the genes we receive from our parents.
Nurture refers to the wide range of environments, both physical and social, that influence our development.
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Some researchers see development as a continuous (changes with age occur gradually, in small incensements, gradual process, akin to a tree's growing taller with each passing year. Others see it as a discontinuous (changes with age include occasional large shifts) process, involving sudden dramatic changes, such as the transition from caterpillar to cocoon to butterfly.
Have a basic overview of what is conception (the union of an egg form the mother and a sperm from the father) vs implantation vs ovum period vs. Zygote, embryo (the name given to the developing organism from 3rd to 8th week of prenatal develp), to fetus (develop organism from 9th to birth week) etc.
Summary of Prenatal Development
Embryo at 4 weeks . Four folds in front head develops . Primitive heart beating and circulating blood . Arm and leg buds
Fetus at 5½ to 8½ weeks : Differentiation begins in nose, mouth, palate . By 8½ weeks these are separate structures . Time when clef palate can occur
Fetus at 9 weeks : Rapid brain growth . All internal organs present . Sexual differentiation starts
Fetus at 11 weeks : Heart achieves basic heart structure . Spine and ribs visible . Major divisions of brain
Fetus at 16 weeks : Growth in lower body accelerates . Movement increases, breathing movements, and some reflexes . External genitalia developed
Fetus at 18 weeks : Covering of fine hair and greasy coating to protect skin . Thumb-sucking visible
Fetus at 20 weeks : More time spent with head down . Facial expression components present . Weight gain and cramped quarters in amniotic sac
Fetus at 28 weeks : Brain and lung development increases survival rate . Eyes can experience REM movement . Neural activity similar to newborn . Weight tripled (especially if you remember that it is cephalocaudal.)