Human performance

Classified in Geography

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Environm Impact- Deer herbivrs cause damage forestry, crops When large numb. Research shown that deer can damage 2% crop grazing and Trampling, less that losses by pigeons, rabbits.. Neverthls also benefits, dry Summer fallow eat tops of spring beans to gain moisture/ envirnm impacr woodl Where deer eat young or coppiced trees, specially ash, hazel and cherry (roe). Some fallows in rut destroy saplings and tubes. Where hazel coppicedstools shouldbe covered or deer may graze 90% Of re-growth/ To protect from deer damage new planting trees or hedges must be Protected by fencing or trees guards. If fallow 1.5 m tubes, if not 1,2. Forestry comissn coer 80% of costs but it must be effect, if not re-paid/ Protection is needed, but specific locatns damage so it must be eliminated/ Optim Popul- Deer manag- maintain Balance btw habit and popul density, puropose of culling is remove annual Surplus that habit cant sustain whtout degradation. Opt Pop- infinitely Variable as habitat (not sme broad-leaved than beech or conifer), also depend Upon notion of acceptable envrnm impct/ carrying capacity of estate is numb That habt can sustain and the landowner is preprared to tolerate so it depends On estate and owner/ Pop Dynmcs- before manag plan has to be Audit following info (numb of species, density, sex ratio, quality, age) info Isn’t easy (eg- age of live deer), but when know the dynamcs can be determined/

Birth Rates- high birth rates, there are no predators bcs Exinted centuries ago, may expand rapidly if not managd/ Fall fem become Sexually mature 2 yrs, one calf each yr. Fecundity of 75%// Roe- fem mature 1 Yr, twins. Fecundity of 100% and now 140// Muntj- sexu mature 6 mnths. Rapid Expansion, can be born anytime of yr, but winter mortality, fertility 100%// Ntural Mortlty- variable. As they are Herbv chewing cud part of digestion, that causes teeth wear down, so starvation Common death in old/ have winter innapetence (metabolic slow) if not food in Spring can die/ After birth vulnerbl can die 25% of neo-natal, not only Predation (low cases), but also diseases/ Other causes- Traffic accidents are Other main cause// Emigr/Inm- Movement o deer of areas can impact in popul specially in local areas bcs Usually neighbors estates dnt have same strategies in manag// Hoffman Pyrmd- what popul shld look Like whtout manag, count in march/april. Spring pop 120, summer 180 (100%fert), 152 (25%die), means that 32 should be culled. Old bucks valuable is common 2:1. Without culling pop of 120 can 1.000 in 10 yrs/ Factors affect cull plnng- Overall density/ sex ratio/ age banding/ reprod rate/ mortality/ emig, inmg./ Econmcs- Culling and manag get benefits Not only from stalking but also for the venison of the deers. Mnag also has Human expendts (gamekeepers), report writing and machinery. But also indirect benefits From crops and woodland

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