Human performance

Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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Ch 6

Habituation(exposed to stimulus for a long time or repeatedly, and if stim is Neither harmful nor rewarding)/Sensitization(exposed Long time->increased behavioral response, if harmful or rewarding ex)smell Of fire)//Classical Conditioning/Simultaneous C(CS and US presented at the same time)Backward C(CS immediately follows US)Delayed C(CS follows US with some time)Traced C(CS and UCS presented Separately) ♥Acquisition->Extinction->Spontaneous Recovery->Extinguished Little Albert: white rat->loud sound-> but not long term/Counterconditioning: fear thing Closer->give candy or sth->overcome phobia/Systematic desensitization: CS->CR1(fear)=>CR2(relax)/ ♥Operant Conditioning: Thorndike’s Experiment(cat press lever and gets out of box)/Skinner Box(rat or pigeon in the box)/Premack principle(more valued activity can be used to reinforce the Performance of less valued act)Shaping(making Dog serf)Behavior modification(token Economy) Fixed Interval(Cramming Schedule, procrastinate studying,slash:exam grade) Variable Interval(Pop quiz schedule, more regularly for unscheduled Quiz)Fixed ratio(coffee card Schedule,slash:free drink)Variable ratio(slot Machine schedule produces robuse responding, slash is winning)//Reinforcement and dopamine:when Reinforced, person experience increased dopamine in the brain region that Process reward info/Instinctual drift(tendency Of animal to drift back from learned operant response to innate instinctual Response) Learning without Reinforcement-Tolman’s argument: reinforcement has more impact on Performance than on acquisition of knowledge through learning. ♥Observational Learning: Bobo doll experiment/Attention->retention->reproduction->motivation, Mirror neurons///Modeling// Vicarious conditioning(먼저 punishreward되는거 보고 행동)

Ch 7

Encoding->Storage->Retrieval//♥Encoding-Attention(focusing mental Resources on info/allows further processing for perception, memory, and Response/visual,auditory attention)//Selective Attention(occurs because attention is a limited source, filter theory, Cocktail party effect, change blindness(when talking to stranger, change, don’t Know)/// ♥Storage sensory Input->sensory memory->STM->LTM//Sensory Storage: iconic memory: visual sensory register holds exact copy of visual Input for less than 1 second/Short-term Storage: distractor task, 20 seconds, working memory can be extended by maintenance Rehearsal/capacity: 5~9 chunks, meaningful unit can increase the number of Chunk./Long-term storage: nearly Limitless capacity and duration. Maintenance Rehersal(repeating over and over, auditory info), Elaborative rehearsal(based on meaning, semantic information) ♥Types of LTM Explicit(declarative)memory-semantic Memory/episodic memory Implicit(non Dec)memory-procedural memory/classical conditioning///Primacy(front)/Recency(back) Effect Amnesia: Anterograde~:lose ability to form new memory/Retrograde~:lose old memories/Infantile~: unable to retrieve memory From age of 2-4 years//Henry Molaison:removed Hippocampus->Anterograde Amnesia with explicit memory//Long-term storage: Prospective memory(remembering to do sth at Future) Consolidation(experience Becomes lasting memory) Reconsolidation(retrieved Memories can be different since they could be affected by current circumstance) Prefrontal cortex(working memory) Hippocampus(spatial memory) Temporal Lobe(explicit memory) Amygdala(implicit memory, fear Learning) Cerebellum(implicit Memory: procedural memory) ♥Retrieval Context-dependent memory(underwater) state-depen-memory(mood)//Mnemonics: method of loci/peg-word system(creating Mental association between two concrete object) Retroactive/Proactive interference/Absentmindedness(lack of Attention) Persistence(unwanted Memory retrival) ♥Distortion: Memory Bias(memories over time being consistent with our current belief) Flashbulb memories(capturing the Circumstance which we first surprised) Misattribution(when We misremember the memory) Suggestibility, False Memories(candy=>sweet)

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