Values and Modernization – Conceptual Framework Modernization theory builds on a long tradition stressing the Potential and extent of human progress. Generalized expectation that socio-economic modernization Effects value change. Enlightment: Science and reason set individuals free Marx: Technological change and capitalism makes Communism possible Smith: Technology is a source of wellbeing Postwar theorists: Some values favor economic progress While other ones not (e.G. Parsons) Nevertheless, classic modernization theory underspecifies (a) Mechanims and (b) types of values brought by modernization. Inglehart and central social theorists consider that economic Change is the main source of value change in modern societies. Values differ much between pre-modern and modern societies.