Values and Modernization – Conceptual Framework Modernization theory builds on a long tradition stressing the Potential and extent of human progress. Generalized expectation that socio-economic modernization Effects value change. Enlightment: Science and reason set individuals free Marx: Technological change and capitalism makes Communism possible Smith: Technology is a source of wellbeing Postwar theorists: Some values favor economic progress While other ones not (e.G. Parsons) Nevertheless, classic modernization theory underspecifies (a) Mechanims and (b) types of values brought by modernization. Inglehart and central social theorists consider that economic Change is the main source of value change in modern societies. Values differ much between pre-modern and modern societies.
Basic argument: Values matter and get entrenched due to their funcionality to The economic context. In human history value change has occured mainly as a result of A constant improvement in economic prosperity. Increasing wealth -> existencial security -> value modernization (rationalism, individualism) Universal probabilistic law (individual level + country level). No monocausal explanation! Cultural heritage of the country Also matters.
Microfoundations->Human desires and needs are set in a Cummulative, conditional fashion. Values are determined by personal Experiences. Some of these experiences are Shared collectively.