Human Resource Management

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

ITEM 1: CONTENTS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

1.1. INTRODUCTION.
The Human Resources Division is defined as the process of selection, training, development and achievement of the professional staff needed to achieve the objectives of the organization are also included in this process the activities needed to achieve maximum satisfaction and efficiency of workers .

1.2. CONCEPT OF ADDRESS.
The manager's job is to combine human and technical resources to best achieve the goals. Management levels are:
1.
Senior management: It is composed of the president and other key executives who make decisions like those concerning the development of new products, buying other companies or conducting international operations. They oversee the general operations of the company.
2. The middle management: including factory managers or heads of divisions. They address specific issues. Are responsible for developing detailed plans and procedures to implement the general plans of top management. Oversees operational management.
3.
Operational management: Also called supervisory management or frontline management are responsible for assigning workers to specific jobs and evaluating their results. It is responsible for putting into action plans developed by middle management, and is in direct contact with workers. 1.3. ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMAN RESOURCES.
Although some companies are very different from others, all have one thing in common: their success depends almost exclusively on human resources.
A company is an organization and more importantly for its success are the people who compose it. If these people have been well selected, well trained, well integrated in the groupoid work, and are identified with the goals of the organization, it will succeed.
Success also depends on how people interact and their relationship with the organization. It is therefore important that people are well directed.




1.4. THE COMPANY AND ORGANIZATIONS.
The success of organizations depends on the environment in which enterprises operate, but in turn, progress and welfare of society depend on the organizations.
From the social point of view, the continuous improvement of public and private organizations is a key objective.

1.5.EFFECTIVENESS, EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY.
An effective organization is one that meets its objectives, ie the one that produces goods and services that society demands and the way in which society's demand.
An organization is efficient if it uses the minimum amount of resources needed to produce those goods and services.
Productivity is the division of the amount produced between the amount of resources used for production.
Productivity rises as it takes fewer resources to obtain the same output or there is much the same resources or when production increases and resources are reduced.
If productivity rises, unit costs tend to decline. This makes the surplus to rise allowing the organization to better reward employees and improve their working conditions which may motivate more people to increase productivity.

1.6. OBJECTIVES OF THE DIRECTORATE OF HUMAN RESOURCES.

1.6.1. Types of goals.

The Human Resources Division contributes to improving productivity. Directly finding more efficient ways of achieving objectives, and indirectly by improving the quality of life at work.
1. Social objectives: Trying to minimize the negative impact it can have the demands of society in the organization.
2. Objectives of the Organization: DRRHH should contribute to their achievement.
3. Objectives DRRHH function itself.
4. Employees' personal goals: To improve people's contribution to the organization, maintain and retain people and they are motivated.

1.6.2. The relationship between DRRHH objectives and activities.
To achieve these objectives, DRRHH get deals, develop, utilize, evaluate, maintain and retain the quantity and quality of human resources that the organization needs.
DRRHH's activities are:
- As the organization grows, needs new workers with different characteristics. To estimate the future needs of human resources is planned.
- We are looking to the right people to these needs, which requires a selection process.
- Developing a training and orientation activities.
- The planning needs can be met with people who are in it and for it, are engaged in development activities.
- As the organization transforms and grows, placement activities transferred to the people of some other tasks and occupations, promotions and release it when unavoidable.
- The evaluation and control are not just to check how well people perform their tasks, but to know whether to reconsider the decision and selection processes, guidance, training, development and placement. They can also highlight problems of job satisfaction and motivation.
- Activities of compensation include salaries and wages, holidays, insurance, ...
- Legal regulations requiring certain activities to set minimum wages and minimum service to workers.
- There may be individual or collective disputes that may involve the intervention of unions, therefore, has to deal with labor relations.

1.7. ORGANIZATION OF DRRHH.
To organize is to divide work among people and groups and coordinate their activities.
Small businesses do not have sufficient budgets or directors to have a Human Resources Department.
It is easier to ensure that all persons acquire the idea of a group of computer that has common goals and who are motivated to achieve them.
Even in large companies these departments are not responsible for everything relating to DRRHH because each DRRHH manager has responsibilities in relation to persons over whom they have authority.

1.8. THE HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT.
At the onset is usually a small department that corresponds to a mid-level managers and is limited to payroll and help lead managers to select staff.
The DRRHH involves performing a series of well-defined functions, but as businesses grow, has to be assuming a range of obligations that are not located in any other.
In an organization, involving DRRHH be created when more benefits than costs. Usually arise when DRRHH activities become a burden to other departments.
As it grows, the organization raises the level of the manager who runs it, increase the number and variety of activities entrusted to the Department and specialized sub-units are created.
There might be a sub-bureau for each activity DRRHH though not often.

1.8.2. The Department of Human Resources as a service department.
The line is the authority that has the directness of the head over subordinates (line managers).
The authority staff is based on consultative and advisory.
The line managers have direct responsibility for production decisions, marketing, finance and human resources.
When the HR department identifies an issue of whose advice is responsible, it draws the attention of the line manager concerned and indicates the most appropriate decision.
The HR department usually has some functional authority is that they are recognized as specialists in a particular field to make decisions in specific circumstances.
Is assigned to the complex decisions and routine.
If the HR department has functional authority on a subject, not adviser, but decided on that topic.
The existence of various types of authority (linear, staff and functional) can cause the DRRHH dual responsibilities can lead to conflicts between line and staff.
When a conflict occurs, line managers and staff should review their objectives and methods, and decide together.

1.9. CONTENT DRRHH.
1.9.1. The DRRHH as a system.
The activities of the DRRHH form a system in which each activity is related to the others. This system is open, it is conditioned by the environment.

1.9.2. Activities containing DRRHH.
1. Planning and Selection has to start planning human resource requirements and studying the requirements of the tasks to be performed. Then it performs the search and selection of people who fit those needs and requirements, using internal and external sources.
The success in the selection helps both the success of the company as to its executives.
2. Development and evaluation: When an employee is reassigned to existing or new one is hired, we need guidance on policies and procedures of the company. The lack of guidance can make you resent both worker productivity and quality of life at work.
We must train workers to perform their current job and develop their skills.
Success depends on the existence of a feedback process in which information is received on the results.
Both managers and employees learn from the success they have had their efforts and provides information to learn from their mistakes.
3.
Compensation and protection policy: People should get compensated for their efforts. They may include incentives that relate the income of workers with their productivity. Almost always includes a wide variety of benefits and services that are part of conjuntote employees receive compensation. Prescription of standards at various levels and corporate will, people have a number of measures on safety, hygiene and health at work.
4. Industrial relations: We analyze the economic-business side of the main theories on motivation and job satisfaction. This is about internal communication systems. The organizational change and development are some useful elements for understanding the relationships between productivity and quality of life at work. If DRRHH is important for the company, it sure is successful, which requires a regular audit.

1.9.3.'s Activities DRRHH as subsystems.
The systems approach describes the human resource activities and processes that transform inputs into outputs. The monitoring of the outcomes of processes, information is collected which allows evaluating the correctness of the same, producing a feedback process and feedback, which makes the system self-regulating.
The information on the existence of discomfort, available human resources, and unmet demand, is an input. Another HR input are those willing to experience. The program itself is a process of transformation, from which we obtain some more skilled HR, unmet social demand, higher employee satisfaction and increased profits for the organization.
The control system compares the output with the social, organizational, functional and personal, and the result is positive, the feedback works by launching a second program.
Ideally proaction act, ie, before the problem arises.
The HR system is an open system that is influenced by their environment. The historical development, environmental and occupational determines the context in which DRRHH practices. Identifying and understanding these changes is essential to understand the practice.

1.10.EVOLUTION OF THE CONTENTS OF DRRHH.
Puchol, in his direction and human resource management performs a review of developments since 1940 in Spain DRRHH:
-
1.940-1.950 Years: They followed the Civil War and are determined by the postwar economic autarky:
• It establishes a rigid discipline in the world of work, with a dramatic setting of wages, although the price uptrend suffered from uncontrolled.
• As a legal basis for the Labor Law, Labor Law, there is, enacted in 1938 prohibiting the strike and imposes the official union.
• As there is an exodus from the countryside to the city, there is plenty of labor pawns. Not so easy to get specialized personnel, but not required in an amount impossible.
• The company is highly vertically integrated, there remains a kind of autocratic-military leadership tempered by a condescending paternalism, the remuneration was fixed by decree and work schedules were Taylorist.
• The role of the Personnel Division is very unkind. It has the rank of directors, but the police headquarters, depending on either the Administrative Office or Production.
• Chief of Staff should be an administrative "trusted", which had control of absenteeism, high and low in the SS, preparation of pay slips. He preferred to impose respect and implement the Internal Regulations to punish offenses of all kinds.
• Company stores were created, and certain other institutions that eased some tightness in living for all workers. Another measure was that of the two bonuses, which are added the so-called "benefits".
- In the decade 1.950-1.959: There is significant economic growth rate, which allowed end the rationing of food, particularly through exports of agricultural products, emigrants' remittances, foreign investment and tourism revenues. You get U.S. aid.
• Economic growth and export of labor to other countries means that unemployment is reduced.
• By 1951 the first labor movements emerging opposition to citizen protests.
• A process of urbanization of the rural population, from the most deprived areas.
• The economic boom to import industrial equipment and technology, but there are difficulties in getting people trained to handle the new machinery and arise:
a) The FPA (Accelerated Vocational Training).
b) The Labor Universities, which were really specialized vocational training centers.
c) type program PPO (Professional Advancement Workers).
d) The Apprentice School some large public and private companies.
• The human resources function technified. Appears training and was going to attach greater importance to the treatment of individual conflict.
• The occupant of the post of Chief of Staff is usually a lawyer or social worker.
• The company's organizational structure becomes more horizontal.
- The period 1.959-1.975: Had the Spanish economic development in two subperiods. The first, which is marked by economic expansion that drove the Stabilization Plan of 1959, lasted until the early 70s, where he begins a period of crisis aggravated by the steady increase in oil prices. In this period:
• Multinational companies are entering in Spain, bringing its employee handbook. The influence of leadership styles and techniques of foreign firms have a decisive impact. The opening of Spain to Europe facilitates professional exchanges with other countries.
• The creation of industrial infrastructure of a significant favorable labor movements of opposition.
• Collective bargaining, the establishment of shop stewards and the Enterprise of the Juries. Collective disputes are becoming more frequent.
• Businesses demand technical direction and business administration. As public universities do not meet these demands and emerging private schools.
• consulting firms appear on recruitment, training executives and middle management, job evaluation, performance evaluation, ...
• In companies shorten the distances between the different levels of organization, new technical and managerial functions and reveal the importance of the human.
• It elevates the importance of the role of personal and organizational positioning. E is leaving the designation of Chief of Staff to go to Personnel Division. Usually set in the chart as the fourth functional address, along with the addresses financial, manufacturing and commerce.
• The economic crisis of the period, the regime's political exhaustion, growing labor unrest and hunger for change politically and socially, marked the last years of Franco. It was not easy to combine the defense of corporate interests with the aspirations of much of the population. It is noteworthy collective bargaining and the regulation of employment records and staff reductions.
- Since 1975: In 1977 were published some provisions that were to set the new model of industrial relations. It passed the law decreeing freedom of association for workers and employers which abolished compulsory unionism.
• In 1978 the Constitution was adopted.
• The confusion of the Director of Personnel with the defenders of the company against the workers advised to separate human resource functions of labor relations. In some companies Direcci
ion dependent two subdirectorates Personnel: The Human Resources (selection, promotion, training, development, evaluation, compensation, ...) and the employment relationship (employment contract, payroll, income tax deductions and SS, permits, exceedances, individual claims, disputes, relations with the works council, collective agreement negotiation ...).
• The DRRHH becomes a provider of services to be responsible for the recruitment of consultants, advisers, service or freelance.

1.11. MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL TO CONDUCT HR.
The classic description of HR, has been "Personnel Management". The change in terminology is the result of quantitative and qualitative expansion of its content.
Personnel management was a function that included payroll tax withholding for employees, the withholding of contributions of SS, allowances, pensions and other routine tasks.
As the agenda is expanding and growing the size of the department, it ceases to depend on government departments to be closer to top management. The head of the Department becomes the Director of Personnel.
The issue of choice between Personnel Management and DRRHH is considering people as persons, not as staff to the company, nor as mere servants or employees of it.




UNIT 2: PLANNING AND HR INFORMATION SYSTEM

2.1. CONCEPT.
Planning will enable the organization to have in each moment with the right person for the job.
In DRRHH plans include:
- Analysis and design of jobs.
- Recruitment.
- Selection of workers.
The filling of vacancies will be internal or external depending on the type of work, training and flexibility that has employees with the organization and other factors.
Strategic planning involves goals that it should be enshrined in the objectives of the organization.

2.2. Personality inventory.
The question is how many people counted in a specific time in each job.
There will be performance evaluations and personality and the inventory must have not only detailed information on the number of people, but also on the skills, abilities and skills of employees with respect to the position they occupy and with a view to subsequent occupations .
Shall include the personal and job characteristics in question and will develop a list of substitution of some other workers, so in case of a vacancy quickly identify suitable candidates.

2.3.FORMAL AND INFORMAL PLANNING.
Just make a formal planning big business, which is essential to know the future needs of staff. The formal planning requires that the company has a clear policy.
Both large and small and medium enterprises should conduct a more informal planning.
In a medium or small everyone can carry out an informal planning, as everyone knows and also know the needs of each post. With increasing size, complexity tends to increase, hence that managers will delegate tasks to the HR Department.
Planning is the essential tool for incorporating appropriate persons at appropriate times. When domestic supply equals demand, is not necessary planning. Most often an imbalance of excess supply or demand.
2.4. THE PROFILES OF POSTS AND PLANNING.
Any vacancy occurring in the company can be of two types:
- Definitive:
• Creating new job.
• Redundancies planned.
• Abandonment of the organization.
• Retirement.
• Unpaid agreed.
- Temporary:
• Disease.
• Maternity.
• Holidays.
• rotation of posts.
The HR Department will act jointly with the line manager or department and its work can develop the profile of the job.
Search for a single person who fit a particular job entails more difficult than searching for your personal fit the profile of a job family. This will allow greater flexibility and adaptability to change.
DRRHH's work is to anticipate the situations in which there is a difference between where you are and where you want to be and fill this gap.

2.4. DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH.
There may be situations requiring decisions concerning people as they are a drop in sales or an economic crisis. This requires the company to combine various factors that constitute the diagnostic approach.
The factors identified in the diagnostic approach are:
1.
The environment: Those external factors that may affect directly or indirectly. Some are inexpensive and are difficult to predict. Technological change is one of the most influential factors in HR planning. The social, political, legal or financial influence but are also a simple prediction. The need for companies to follow an ethical will, when hiring managers are trying to determine the degree of ethical commitment they have. The internationalization of the economy may also have its impact on staff.
2. The organization: In the short term, may make cuts or increase the staffing budget. The long term effect will depend on the establishment of new or different products, and enlargement or reduction of the market. Organizational management changes involve changes in the nature of work.
3.
The personal information about employees is central to their experiences, skills, abilities, training needs and motivations.
Given all these factors, it becomes evident the need to predict the contingencies in respect of the staff may arise.
It may be necessary to introduce statistical techniques such as extrapolation (which linger on past trends), and indexing (which matches the rate of growth or decline in employment with a particular index). Both are simple to apply and useful in the short term. In the long term is necessary to use more sophisticated techniques.
Sometimes it is necessary to perform more elaborate plans and budgets or software to simulate and solve hypothetical situations or planned. The degree of complexity which is displayed with the most appropriate.
Lately it is quite common procurement of certain services outside the company, also called outsourcing.
The
advantages of outsourcing are:
1. Cost reduction in internal staff engaging in other activities.
2. The selection of the best possible service.
The disadvantages of outsourcing:
1. The third unit is generated.
2. Difficulties in integrating external functions within the company.

2.6. THE PLANNING AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES.
HR Strategic Planning requires that standards be set so as the effects they produce, ie, planning to move from a data manager to become an instrument of active participation in business strategy.
May be performed supervisory work of comparing the work involved with those provided for:
1. Check if there has been evaluating the performance of employees on the dates specified.
2. Verify that appropriate practice interviewing staff who joined the organization.
3. Pick up the complaints with respect to the work of the Department, and so on.
It may be useful to know what portion of the budgets of the Organization apply to DRRHH and subsequent compliance. The development of ratios and their comparison can provide information on effectiveness.
The ratios used are:
1. The ratio of the total number of employees and HR staff.
2. The training cost per individual.
3. The days used to fill vacancies, and so on.
Analysis of these ratios can be difficult and misleading interpretation.
Towards the 70s he began to consider calculating the cost of search, select and train staff. Have used measures such as:
1. Dividing sales revenue over total costs directly related to the workers.
2. Split the profits before tax over total costs of personnel.
3. Divide the profit after tax by the total personnel costs.
The HR Department should support staff and its utility will be higher, the greater its ability to provide answers. The quality of service it provides will be offset by the value it adds to the company, the cost involved. Competitive advantage will increasingly belong to those organizations that achieve the optimum use of people who are part of them.

2.7. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM.
2.7.1. Concept.
The SIRRHH is a tool that will allow the DRRHH sort and reorganize the information necessary to organize people and their activities and establish the characteristics of their position.
The SIRRHH is a subsystem of it, being used for:
1. Analyze the conditions of employees of the organization and external environment.
2. Identify the goals, ie planning.
3. Choosing between the different activities that will carry out the objectives.
4. Evaluate results of the activities and objectives.
5. Provide feedback (feedback) to DRRHH.
For an information system to be effective need not be computerized.
The whole process involves a cost that is an investment in the organization, but, although the benefits are undeniable, must be taken that have minimum costs, and to suit the company.

2.7.2. Elements of the information system.
The first task is to establish the data they need, you should choose the data which will actually add value to DRRHH. Finally you must choose the support that will sit on the whole system.



The elements of SIRRHH are:
1. The
inputs to the system are all the procedures used to collect data. The database must be maintained and updated.
2. The
support chosen is the choice of form or technology chosen leg transform data into useful information.
3. After processing the data output will occur therein, which acquire different forms depending on who is to be the receiver of information.
The entrance to the system is unique because it is not just data, the outputs generated are manifold since they may lead to different types of reports.

2.7.3. Models SIRRHH.
Depending on the level of activity that the user can distinguish 3 models:
1. Data processing: The system is a simple data store, the user receiving periodic reports. The level of user activity is very low.
2.
System management information: The user can ask experts some sort of manipulation of the data for analysis on that information. The activity level is moderate.
3.
Decision Support System: The user can request the expert to make some kind of simulation. The activity here is maximum.
The strategic value will increase as SIRRHH user activity is greater.

2.7.4. Characteristics of a SIRRHH.
1. Flexibility: Must be flexible to be adapted to needs.
2.
Confidentiality: The data should not be of public interest should only be given to who is authorized.
3.
Ease of use: Simple to use. If it is complex it is likely that it is not used. Ideally, the user will not required additional training but is the system itself to be telling you how to obtain the information.
4. Adaptability: The system that must adapt to business needs and not vice versa.

2.7.5. Qualities of a SIRRHH.
1. Must be accurate because if the data are inaccurate can lead to making wrong decisions.
2. Should include only the truly
relevant information, avoiding that which is not needed.
3.
You should not create more problemsthan it solves.
4.
It should highlight the most important.
An effective SIRRHH should be able to manage the organizational structure of the company taking into account the need to organize and adapt to changes.
2.7.6. The advantages of computerized SIRRHH.
1. Lack of manual.
2. There are no repetitive tasks.
3. There is no redundancy of information.
4. All tasks have automatic controls.
5. Eliminating unnecessary information flows supported on paper.
6. No data or inconsistent processes between different levels of the company.
7. The updating of the information is permanent.
It is easier to implement computerization in some areas of the company than others.
The aspects of the areas which may be interesting to use software are:
1. Inventory of staff. The company needs to know their potential. As the size of the enterprise is greater, the more effective it will be replaced by a computerized inventory manual. It is showing more useful.
2. Selection. If all the data files are transferred to a database, may be crossed and manipulated the information obtained, to give to the person having the right profile.
3. Training. Training needs of employees are manifested not only where just been hired. They may also be due to the installation of a new administrative procedure, a new machine or a job change. The companies organize courses for staff to update their knowledge. They must have a database to collect training and staff skills, and current and future needs.
4.
Evaluation of merit and performance. There are objective standards and others are very subjective and difficult to measure.
5.
Career Development. A computer program can collect and manage information such as knowledge and skills of each employee and the developments that have followed.
Some companies have internal staff to address this SIRRHH computerize work, but others must engage the services of a specialist firm. The most advisable is to buy a software package that addresses the peculiarities of the company.







UNIT 3: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF JOBS

ANALYSIS OF POST.

3.1.1. Concept.
A job consists of the task or set of tasks carried out by an employee. It is about the job itself and not the person that develops it.
Most information is taken from the employee through questionnaires and interviews.
Questionnaires can be opened or closed. The questionnaires are open to the incumbent sought to describe the tasks performed and questionnaires closed down all the questions in advance can happen to forget any important.
The questionnaires are of great interest to establish the proper remuneration of employees and avoid any discrimination with employees that perform the same work.
One of the most used is the Analysis Questionnaire Position (CAP) which take into account the objectives of the tasks and human factors, and the reactions of individuals to working conditions. The result combines the conditions of the post with human characteristics.
Both the questionnaire and the interview will be the same for each category of post and must be prepared after talking with the line manager or department.
The interviews collected information through a dialogue with employees may be:
- Individual interviews: you normally use a semi-open model where some questions are predetermined in advance, while others are carried out according to the employee's responses.
-
Interviews of group spoke two or more employees who are performing the same work. The main advantage is that enough time shortens.
-
Interviews observation: carried out while the employees work, observing how different tasks are running.
It is of great importance to analyze the job when it comes to hiring a new employee, because the characteristics depend on the work required to be undertaken.

3.1.2. Components of posts.
The elements that analyze a job are the content and description.
- Content of the place: It is about knowing what the job. The job description may be brief (overview) or more detailed defining each of the movements required for the position.
To establish the content of the post will be discussed:
1. The task or tasks performed: The data for the task should show what the actual work performed and why they perform a certain task and the time taken to carry it out. Questions should be simple.
2. The precise skills or abilities will vary with the task to be carried out.
3. The duties and responsibilities: Know exactly if it is above positions.
4. Adequate compensation.
-
Description of job: This includes identification, definition and description. All forms must have the same formal structure. The information has to be very clear so they can be used by other people, must bear the date for comparison.
The phases are:
1. ID: We collect basic data that distinguish one job from another.
2. Define the purpose of work: The question is what are the overall objectives. Knowing the person who depends on the employee and the supervisor provides great help in setting wages.
3. The proper description: Specifies the various work tasks. You can also include the training needed to carry it out, hours of work, type of risk, ie, conditions of work. It is useful to distinguish between tasks that are performed regularly and sporadic.
The above elements constitute aid instruments to the analyst, but does not guarantee a correct choice. It will be desirable to develop a Job Description Questionnaire should be completed by the employee who currently occupies the post.
It is about the post and not the person who holds it. Not to be used as a tool against the employee but will be prompted to try to determine the characteristics that constitute their work and the qualities required to play the person.

3.2. DESIGN JOBS.

3.2.1. Concept.
The design includes job content, requirements and employee benefits and is the best way to measure motivation.
Employee productivity, satisfaction and difficulties DRRHH provide the effective guidance in the design of the post. A job can be well designed and not give the employee the satisfaction expected. The positions of the design deficiency can lead to a high level of staff turnover, absenteeism, complaints and grievances, showing dissatisfaction.
The design of management positions and brings an additional complication that becomes more evident the need for design work to achieve objectives, tasks and responsibilities but not so broad that it can not handle it.

3.2.2. Characteristics of job design.
1. Scope: Refers to the number of tasks or activities. The greater the number of tasks performed, the more will it take to get the job done.
2. Depth: The worker has the discretion to decide the activities and results of the post. The depth depends on the delegated authority to take the employee, but also of his own personal attitude. The posts are highly specialized, low-range and high depth.
3.
Relations between posts: Establish relationships that foster communication between people is a source of satisfaction for individuals. It is easier in small groups than in larger. Functional departmentalization provides more homogeneous groups that encourage communication while departmentalization territories, customers or products, being more heterogeneous set less satisfying relationships.

3.2.3. Factors affecting the design.
1. The environment: It is possible to design a job regardless of skills or the availability of employees and the social environment (young workers are less reluctant to change than the older ones).
2.
Social acceptance: An employee will be much more satisfied with their work is considered the more socially. The designer of posts may make a number of changes and improvements in working conditions, so that the employee will find it more attractive.
3.
The work practice: The way in which traditionally has been performing work in an organization is a huge factor. Unions also play an important role as they are not willing to accept changes that represent a loss of acquired rights of employees.
According to Taylor, the most important thing was to simplify the work for which had to be reduced to the most basic tasks. Early studies on job design were carried out in factories in which workers who were employed industrialization highly specialized tasks.
Taylor said that the essence of scientific management was to develop a science for each element of the task the worker to select, train and guide the employee while the employee previously did the job the best I could.
The main ideas underlying this scientific approach are:
- The rigidity of the rules.
- Strict surveillance.
- Ignorance of the worker's needs (physical, psychological, ...).
The
mechanistic approach attempts to identify all the tasks of a job, so that made in the shortest possible time. It comprises a limited number of tasks, which are integrated into one post. It is possible to achieve greater specialization and get that employee training is achieved in minimal time.
This approach is still used for employees without a qualification or experience in industrial work for the employee but it is mechanical, boring and alienating (feels like a pawn).
The human relations approach affects the efficiency of work from the standpoint of the worker. Theorists focused on the study of the social environment surrounding the job.
The
focus of work characteristics on worker supports anything that can provide greater satisfaction and motivation. The main thing is that the employee feels and performs important work is the need to know that their work is useful. There are several factors that help to feel that sense of usefulness:
- Performing a variety of tasks: Portrait of who can perform adequately a number of them, so you can develop various skills, abilities and knowledge that enable escape from the monotony and boredom.
- Being responsible: If the employee autonomy may be responsible for the work performed. It should leave open the possibility of granting freedom to select the employee responses to change. Enrichment occurs in the performance compensates for the possible uncertainty.
- Getting information about his work: It is the feedback (feedback) where the employee receives feedback on performance. With those guidelines developed its work, which will produce a number of departures or hits on schedule. The feedback allows you to incorporate this information to actual performance.
The designer notes that job if a job is not sufficiently specialized, proceed to simplify tasks, or to divide tasks among several positions, or may remove those deemed less essential.
The designer may try to expand the number of tasks in the post, which will allow reducing drudgery.
Another way to influence is a monotonous job rotation work, which consists of assigning different tasks to employees by changing the position.
Raising levels of autonomy and responsibility can also help to promote the work climate, driving down the monotony and increasing satisfaction. It states that the employee is receptive and willing to take greater responsibility.
The focus of the behavioral sciences observed human behavior in organizations. Drawing on psychology, sociology and anthropology, this approach tries to verify and compare certain behaviors.
The
socio-technical approach of forming a working team, ie two or more workers to unite for the accomplishment of a goal. There must be:
- A shared purpose.
- Flexibility in the reward.
- Continuous Learning.
- Total Decentralization of authority.
- Flexible structures.
- People who feel accepted in a common project.
This approach requires a large support from the highest levels of the organization as the team should enjoy autonomy and responsibility. They should have freedom to design the post and encourage rotation between tasks and earn rewards based on performance of the group, which makes cooperation be.
In our country are difficult to implement but have been used for the manufacture of machinery, automobiles, aircraft and projects. Upon completion of the project, the team is dissolved, is what is known as glue organization.
Not everyone equally receive the same post, so the researchers used questionnaires where employees give their perceptions about certain characteristics of the job.
The
Job Characteristics Index (CPI) attempts to measure perceptions:
1. Variety: One seat will be more varied as more work is done and the greater the variety of equipment and procedures. Implies a greater number of skills.
2. Autonomy: The degree of influence in having the employee work scheduling.
3.
Identity of the task: The degree to which an employee performs a part or all of their work. Will be greater the more you can identify the results of their efforts.
4. Feedback: Information received by the worker on the performance of their work.
5.
Treatment with others: grade that has the employee contact with others in the development of tasks.
6.
Opportunities for friendship: To what extent can establish informal relationships.
The Survey on the Diagnosis of Post (EDP) aims to measure the variety, autonomy, identity and meaning of the task. The difference with the ICP is that it attempts to measure the relations between posts to the EDP.
3.3. REDESIGN OF JOBS.
Enrich the job is done by developing and enhancing the characteristics analyzed and used in both the ICP and in the EPD.
Other authors include enriching the workplace:
1. Rotation of seats: consists in changing the employee from one job to another, allowing for a greater number of tasks. Eliminates routine effect.
2.
Enlargement of posts: The posts excessively specialized create problems of dissatisfaction. A wider scope of the position will reduce boredom and encourage performance. Requires further training, as well as mastering more skills.
3.4. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN.
Their study within the enterprise must be addressed jointly. With the analysis can be known as physical characteristics of the design while we focus on the human aspect.
Be essential in selecting staff and very helpful in the search.
ITEM 4: STAFF RECRUITMENT.

4.1. SEARCH STAFF.
4.1.1. Introduction.
HR Department will be responsible for collecting all information related to the job and the characteristics that must meet the nominee. They used the job analysis and the information provided to the line manager or department, either verbally or by completing an application form where staff pre compile:
1. The functions to perform in the workplace.
2. The features that must meet the nominee.
3. The precise knowledge for the proper performance of the post.
We want the person who will fill the position with experience enough, but this may have two drawbacks: one is that higher levels of experience require a higher salary, and the other is to identify years of experience with quality.

4.1.2. General criteria.
The Directorate of the company to establish criteria:
1.
Qualifications of applicants: A small number of aspiring requirements will cause the number of candidates is high, while increasing the number of them will reduce the number of applicants, raising its quality.
This will set procurement policy. A comprehensive policy would be to not hire anyone from outside while not been researched potential candidates from within. Or, conversely, show a preference for outsourcing.
Another aspect to be set age. The most requested is between 25-40 years while the experience of older people is a good asset positions.
Another aspect is the treatment to be given to applicants with disabilities as they may have the same performance than others and the company can benefit from tax incentives and other measures.
The recruitment of women or people from ethnic minorities pose difficulties in recruitment.
2. Election of incentives: In the case of internal promotion will be the additional incentive in the desire to promote and involves more responsibility and autonomy which often lead to an increase in pay. In the case of a person outside the incentives are the salaries, requirements, conditions, opportunity for advancement, training, the possibility of obtaining scholarships, ...
Incentives should be fixed in advance to avoid situations of inequality with current employees and create false expectations among the new.
3.
Message to convey: The election of the message can be realistic or distorted. To get distorted may be to hire the right person but you will realize the deception and affect the company.
The realist approach is known as Realistic Prior Labor Review (EPRT) and it is intended that the candidate knows the real characteristics of the post. In preparing the EPRT, can help the DRRHH Description Questionnaire. The EPRT make you produce a shortlist of candidates and who gets the job will be better positioned to withstand it.
A realistic description helps the candidates consider the behavior of the most honest and loyal company. The problem arises when choosing the type of information and how it should be, and to provide all information can be exhausting for the candidate.
Moreover, not all candidates interested in the same information, but we can establish some general guidelines:
a) Provide accurate information: Concrete tasks.
b) Responsibility: It will give you an idea of the autonomy they will have and remuneration linked to it.
c) Confidence: The EPRT should be done in a way that inspires credibility because it is an instrument of self-selection of candidates.
4. Qualities of who is responsible for the search: will be the first person in the organization that the candidate knows it has to stimulate the enthusiasm of the candidate, but the opposite often occurs due to lack of information concerning the position and company in general that the interviewer provides.
4.1.3. The application form.
Most companies have some forms to fill out the candidates, in order to have comparable information, allowing the election to be objective. It is more important in an executive role, but in any case is very important confidential data. The data required are:
1.
Personal information: Name, address, age, sex and marital status. Although there may be no discrimination in the job characteristics sometimes advise a certain age, certain physical force or a certain maturity.
2.
Employment history: It should be contrasting. It will also include the posts and accountability, the names and addresses of organizations. Experience in similar position is a desired value, although there is no demonstrable direct connection between increasing experience and improved performance. Provides information on how long the applicant has been in other organizations as there are companies that think that if you've been in one job is because he has little initiative (although he has held various posts within it shows an open mind and polyvalent) and have been in many conflicting and is unfair.
3. References: It is frequently requested from former superiors knowing that the opinion will be subjective. References from friends and relatives should not be considered unless it has been recommended by one of them. If may be appropriate to seek the views of former teammates if the position is as a team.
4.
Academic Preparation: Although not guarantee, companies tend to give great importance and require exaggerated qualities, not because the job requires it but for a sieve. It requires a knowledge of languages (English), though this is only an added value.
5.
Membership of institutions: not all institutions have equal status. It is possible that the company has an order of preference because it can give you an idea of the characteristics of the candidate. When it comes to executive tasks can build relationships for the benefit of the company.
6.
Authenticity of data: Need to apply the signature to ensure authenticity of data. In the case of an executive should be required:
a) Communication and empathy should be able to express themselves clearly both orally and in writing. Must have empathy.
b) Honesty and Integrity: They are necessary because they occupy a position of responsibility with authority to checking accounts.
c) Ability to control and troubleshooting: You must show its desire to organize and manage. It should motivate and create an environment in which they work towards common goals, identify problems and resolve them.

4.1.4. Internal Search.
Often the first source of search is the company itself. Hence the importance of having employees who fit the profile of a job family rather than a specific post. Internal promotion creates a pleasant feeling of climbing chain, which motivates employees.
Channels that can be used in the internal search DRRHH are:
1. Provision: In many companies where there is a panel where you can read ads offer opportunities to hold a position of greater responsibility and pay or willing to travel. Companies that have an intranet information system used to facilitate internal communication.
2.
Inventory of staff: The company must have a census in which all employees are listed with their characteristics. In the first part of the information is collected, the second contains the information related to the position of women in the third information about their formation and the fourth report of the supervisor. The signing date is necessary and indispensable.
For managers should include number of employees to his office, which handles budget and responsibilities of subordinates, type of employee monitoring and specific vocational training received.

3. Cuadros replacement: Once the inventory is necessary to group all this information in some tables showing the potential replacement of the organization and shall contain: The current job description, the employee who occupies it and the potential for change to one or more other positions. Although the information provided is limited can be found very quickly.
4.
Replacement form: It is necessary to group a list of replacement possibilities that exist for each position. This information is collected in the form called substitution. It frequently occurs if you use the internal search to fill management positions. Employees are often in favor of it but it is a domestic monopoly as far as hiring managers are concerned.
Flexibility is desirable because both policies pursued rigidly involve many difficulties and both have advantages. Following a staff promotion policy involves a commitment of the organization with its employees, but it can happen that bad practices are not perpetuated.
Hiring people from outside renewed, but may arouse suspicion if it is a management position. A policy of open competition is the most objective.

4.1.5. External Searching.
Often the company does not find within it the right people to fill specific positions or because staff can not dispense with it in other posts because there is nobody who wants to promote. The first case usually occurs when the organization grows and entry-level jobs require. The second case denote lack of effective promotion policy. Both sources are complementary, given the high cost involved in outsourcing is preferable to exhaust the possibilities of internal recruitment.
It may be advisable to consult economic indicators such as level of unemployment or economic growth prospects and competitive needs.
The external search may use different channels:
1. Recommendations of another employee: It is a very cheap and fairly used. The recommended person usually struggles to who would be well recommended. It is less likely that candidates who enter with recommendations leave the company during the first year. Some companies do not use this policy on the grounds that may pose conflicts, especially when they are relatives. The degree of acceptance of the company depends on the assessment made of the employee who made the recommendation.
2. Advertisement: One of the most widely used because it can reach a number of people, the speed of publication and the possibility of anonymity, but the disadvantage is the high cost.
The ads should describe the job requirements and benefits. Sometimes the company is identified and others include a phone number and a reference.
The heading is the most important stressing the offered post in concrete, minimum requirements and characteristics of the person they seek.
There is a classic "It takes / It provides" that appears in all the company needs and what it offers in return.
Tradeoffs should be in accordance with the motivations that each professional group has. Sometimes it is the reward and will be stability or other working conditions.
Other times the ad is interested less schematic and emphasize more the company name (if the company has great prestige), or is written in another language, which rules out those who do not dominate.
Where training is required you can go into more specific journals. Also used in Internet advertising.
3. Educational Institutions: Used for positions that require some type of higher education. The most used is that of the universities where advertisements are not normally required experience. Also offer training programs or the possibility of internships in companies.
With the existence of private universities has increased the possibility of going prestige of playing an important role center. The Postgraduate Diploma or Masters courses are centers seeking qualified professionals telling some bag work.
4. Membership: Some have bags of work that could be approached to recruit specialists who seek their first job. Are also of hiring experts.
5.
Employment agencies: We must distinguish between the public agency, the INEM and private agencies. The INEM provides jobs for low or low-skilled and private agencies have specialized and temporary jobs.
6.
Consulting firms: They are often used by small and medium firms with no DRRHH. Other times they are used to undertake a major reorganization in companies in crisis. These companies usually develop professional monographs. They provide information on their relationship with other jobs, wage levels that correspond to each profession, the demand in the market, forecasts of future ... The main drawback is its high cost. The advantage is the anonymity of the company and candidates.
Consulting firms working with the study of the job that the company needs and establishes the candidate's profile. The techniques used are advertising, interviews, personality tests and intelligence ... so they produce a report delivered to the company.
The talent hunting (head hunters) are specialized in finding highly qualified personnel. Relations and frequent contacts for successful executives and once they maintain the right person interviews in locations that can maintain confidentiality and discretion.
4.1.6. Seekers spontaneous.
These are people who go to an organization in search of employment. It is used by those who wish to enter a particular company or what they send your resume to several organizations pending a vacancy.
It is the least expensive of all and it is interesting to dwell on the reasons you may have one person (the ability to travel, pay, cutting edge technology, ...).
The behavior in the job search is different when he is unemployed for that if you are thinking about changing jobs or is your first job. For the company may be interesting to know the process of spontaneous search of the applicant to redesign their own search strategies.

4.2. PERSONNEL SELECTION.
4.2.1. Introduction.
Is to determine which candidates can become part of the organization or to hold different job (reassignment or promotion).
In selecting those filters, rejecting those that do not comply. It is a process that begins in the job application and ends in recruitment. The DRRHH performed and choose a prediction that seems more qualified to hold that post.
It is a process that has two meanings, ranging from the organization to the candidate and the candidate that runs from the organization.
The candidate would like information on job tasks: working conditions, peers, the risks the job entails, the opportunities for promotion, salary, benefits and equity. Send a resume makes a request, presents background and references, choose the way they dress, do an interview where he shows his knowledge and enthusiasm.
The company wants to know the candidate's knowledge and skills, motivation, creativity, possibilities of performance, flexibility and skills for training and promotion.

4.2.2. Technical Selection
There are a variety of techniques to measure the information provided by candidates but none can be used to discriminate against any group.
The use of one or several techniques depend on the characteristics of the position to be filled and be assigned to each technique a minimum of compliance. The flexibility in the application of the techniques is a major factor. These techniques are:
1. Job Application: The first information that traditionally provides a candidate. Be asked to fill out a job application when the post is to cover operator, clerk or manager. The data are:
• Personal data: name, age, sex, marital status, nationality.
• Contact details: address, telephone, email.
• Data from previous work: No SS, references of previous work.
• Information on training: education, languages, skills and abilities.
• Data reveal their preferences: schedules, type of work ...
The application shall be signed by the candidate and questions should be clear and easy to interpret and not affect privacy.
The job application is very commonly used among enterprises. The DRRHH should develop a form consistent with the selection process because if there will be interview should be wider than if you made.
One way to assess a tariff is to apply to each of the responses thus get some objectivity in the evaluation of responses.
2. Curriculum vitae: When it comes to professional or managerial employees are asked to draw up a document where the candidates talk about their merits and qualities.
The difference is that this application is usually a document prepared by the DRRHH while the curriculum is written by the candidate. The coach should review the document must be accompanied by an explanatory letter.
It is best to conduct the background checks and references but sometimes not at all simple.
You can ask the candidate a report from his supervisor in the previous employment, which can be very sensitive if you have not left your job. Should have left can be written a letter requesting the reference.
When it comes to managerial positions contacted by a company headhunters will this firm to be responsible for all data.
3. Evidence of capacity: This measure skills and abilities or potential of a candidate. They can be intellectual, mechanical, motor or other. In case of not having these tests can go to a cabinet of experts.
There is also evidence developed through computers to simulate a job. This technique has its detractors who argue that the experience is the only place able to develop skills.
4.
Evidence of knowledge: In some places it is possible to make a simulation that allows to know the degree of visibility to the candidate on the job.
You can select the candidate with a trial period, making it possible to acquire the necessary knowledge or that demonstrates that you have. The more tasks are defined in the job, the easier it is to test knowledge. You can also perform job-related questions.
These tests, along with the ability to establish the suitability of the candidate to the post. It is more complicated in an executive position which is often used psychological tests.
5. Tests of personality: There is a belief that as an individual's personality is better suited for one type of work for another.
The DRRHH can develop a series of tests to detect the skills but could not prove the relationship between certain personality traits and performance of a particular post.
It is also used psychological study applying the hand-written curriculum.
6.
Physical requirements: In some types of work is a prerequisite medical examination (police, fire officials). The medical requirement no longer a mere formality and privacy must be respected. Increased interest when dealing with toxic industries in which a candidate with willingness, could be affected for the performance of the post.
7. RECRUITMENT: You must perform additional tests that support and strengthen the results. Assessment Centers are programs that use simulation techniques, exercises, meetings and troubleshooting equipment. It seeks to determine how the candidate will act asked a typical management situation.
You can set a management game (with computer) with company executives or other candidates to see how it develops. You could also ask for a response to a very specific situation, make a presentation on a topic or prepare a report. HR during the exercises, line managers and experts observe and develop a report that will elect the right candidate.
The main problem with the assessment centers is how long it usually requires about 5 days. Another problem is training the people who are going to evaluate as they may have disagreements on the choice of candidate. Nor is it known with certainty, the validity of the exercises that are used or evaluation measures to be applied.

4.2.3. The selection interviews.
This is the most used. Although a good impression of a candidate does not guarantee good performance, companies take this step before recruitment.
Most often there is a single person to interview and one person of DRRHH although there may be group interviews.
The double meaning of giving and receiving of information is revealed in all its fullness because the interviewer has to learn the techniques of the candidate.
Nonverbal behavior can affect the interviewer's assessment of the affected candidates do not favorably or because the effects depends more on the status and interviewer bias on the attitude of the candidate.
-
The candidate: There are some basic guidelines that are expected to fulfill every candidate:
• Caring for the appearance.
• Review the curriculum before the interview.
• Give rise to the interviewer to take the floor first.
• Ask questions about the work, highlighting the skills or abilities.
• Ask questions about the company and opportunities for advancement or standards.
• Saying goodbye to the interviewer.
Often the anxiety that candidates do make some mistakes to be recognized by the interviewer not to induce him to take a wrong determination. The most common mistakes are:
• Show little interest in the post due to not show it on too.
• Talk in excess of subjects outside the post will appear to not be controlled.
• To boast of the achievements themselves may give the impression of a vain person or lying about previous jobs. It is also wrong excessive humility.
• Answer quickly or do not listen because of anxiety can lead to answers not meditate or not understand the questions, giving the impression of a little thoughtful person.
- The interviewer is the one who displays the image of the organization and the first person of the same who knows the candidate. Should foster the climate of the interview and create an environment of trust. Some basic behavioral patterns are:
• Before entering the room to review the curriculum and prepare questions.
• Make the candidate feel comfortable and relaxed.
• Ask about their education and skills.
• Give the possibility to ask about the job and the company.
• Give understand the purpose of the interview and suggest how they will communicate the results without giving any clue favorable or unfavorable.
Another tactic is different to the word consisting of the candidate. A greater experience of the interviewer to be going the right questions interspersed between the responses given to the candidate.
The interviewer should anticipate questions that make the candidate and leave no unanswered. The type of questions that make the interviewer will depend on the position to play and should avoid taking notes during the interview but must do so upon termination to not forget anything.
There are certain attitudes or behaviors of the interviewer that may cause harm to the candidate and the company:
• Make questions to try to confirm an initial negative impression. It occurs when the interviewer has not prepared the questions and reviewed the curriculum has not carried away by a subjective impression.
• Go to certain stereotypes like "this work is not for a woman."
• Having inadequate information on the needs of the post.
• Giving too much attention to nonverbal communication or casually wrong.
• Making snap judgments early in the interview.
• Compare different candidates together, regardless of position.
• Make the candidate answer implicit questions: is not it, is not it?
• Raising the interview in a field outside the candidate (merits).
A training of the interviewer few companies spend time and resources because its cost is not reflected in an appropriate selection. It should not simply throw the questions but should establish a friendly relationship by establishing trust.
- Types of interviews: Given the degree of freedom with the interviewers as to the formulation of questions:
1.
Structured Interview: The questions are prepared in advance and the interviewer sticks to them. It is essential when more than one interviewer. It is often too mechanical for the interviewer and the candidate who may feel discouraged because it is not a conversation but an interrogation.
2.
Unstructured Interview: It gives the interviewer the opportunity to choose the type of questions to the thread of what will expose the candidate.
3.
Semistructured interview or mixed: Prepare in advance those questions considered most important, leaving the other arising discretion.
There is no reason to choose a type of interview or another but it seems that the information provided or the structured interview is more consistent.
According to Michael Harris are 3 ways of structuring interviews:
1. Interview behavioral description: This is to transfer this behavior in the past.
2. The situational interview: Focusing more on response intentions with deeds. Analyzes applicant's responses to hypothetical situations and points to the solution offered to the facts of a problem. It is also known as problem-solving interview.
3. Comprehensive structured interview: We raise various types of questions and a situation so that the applicant take their intention, ask questions about a variety of job tasks, work and calls simulates express their feelings about specific job requirements.
Strain on the candidate and allows the interviewer to observe their reactions to hypothetical situations. They are known as voltage provocative interviews.

4.2.4. Recruitment.
Before conducting procurement there are two steps: provide the candidate an interview with the possible higher future and make a realistic description of the post.
-
Interview with superior: It is common for the top has the final say in hiring the candidate. More often than not involved when the organization will give the candidate a training course.
Supervisor are sent to two or three candidates who have obtained a higher score. The top may well, through an interview, to deepen their knowledge, skills, aptitudes and attitudes, allowing you to choose the ideal. The responsibility is shared between the HR recruitment and higher.
-
Description realistic position: It is complementary to the interview with the top. The level of performance increases and decreases staff turnover, the more detailed the information received by the candidate on the responsibilities and tasks to be performed. Finally, recruitment takes place, which is the last step in the selection process.
Should be retained hired candidate's file which will then form part of personal inventory. They must also keep records of rejected candidates that enables members of an inventory of potential human resources that can be used to fill other posts.
The HR Department shall inform the successful candidate and the rest we shall thanks for participating.
The preferable DRRHH holds a formal orientation program that explains the new component of the company the basic features of it. To support all the data that was not given before and you should know (history of the organization, organizational structure, requirements for confidentiality, security, ...).
This is not to be pursued with all but it will be necessary in the case of a manager. Another aspect is the socialization in the organization and reflects the acquisition of skills, the adoption of behaviors and adaptation to the norms and values of the working group. This will help the new managers will reduce their anxiety about failure and prevent rejection of their subordinates.
More common is the incorporation to work informally, through partners that are putting in background.

4.2.5. Validity and reliability of the evidence.
The techniques described above are used to determine the suitability of a candidate and their validity depends on the type of test question.
The results of tests to measure physical or motor skills are quite evident, while the validity of scores on intelligence tests are related to job performance.
When the score and performance do not match the test should be eliminated for lack of validity. The validity of a test depends on the ability of prediction.
The addition of valid tests should be reliable, ie in similar situations, similar results. There are 2 approaches to demonstrate the validity:
-
Focus on the practical demonstration: It bases its validity in the predictive test that establishes the connection with the performance of individuals subjected to it. It is the most widely used because it eliminates subjective elements.
A predictor is any element that is able to predict an outcome, can be any of the trials. To be effective, it must make distinctions between the candidates reliably.
The choice of criteria is more complicated because it measure the success or failure of the predictor. Sometimes the criterion is used as a predictor.
Given the complexity of choosing appropriate validation criteria, it is tempting to choose those that can be measured easily or who have already been verified in validation studies. The choice of criteria depends on the type of work and shall consider the basic features relating thereto.
When validation is done with the candidates for the post speaks of predictive validation requires a period of time high, as it must have made the selection trials, has been hired and show their performance. The sample is small because it reduces the candidates hired.
It can also be carried out validation with existing employees, what is known as concurrent validation. The sample is larger and there is no delay. There is no guarantee that new workers to behave like the old even using the same predictors and criteria.
- Focus on rational argument: Based on the content and test development. It examines the similarities between the content of the predictors and criteria. It is less used and often uses it when the number of individuals is not high to allow the prediction and validation can not be established.
Given the high cost of validation, most companies carry out but not to measure the validity of the selection takes into account the actual performance, reports of higher productivity, and so on. The companies that do perform such studies are large in size.

























ITEM 5: ORIENTATION AND LOCATION.

5.1. INTRODUCTION.
The DRRHH needs to ensure that new employees are productive and are satisfied with the company. The first few days can be harrowing as it impairs the ability to learn and it creates dissatisfaction.
First impressions affect their future satisfaction and integration. It is the responsibility of DRRHH get that first impressions are favorable for the new member is a productive and satisfied.

5.2. Efficacy.
Self-efficacy is the estimation of a person of his ability to perform a specific task. It has two characteristics:
1. It is a trial or comprehensive synthesis. People process, weigh and integrate various sources of information about its capabilities.
2. It is a dynamic construct. Self-efficacy represents the cumulative impact of information and prior experience.
Individuals with high self-efficacy visualize success scenarios and those with low self-efficacy undermine its performance to highlight what could go wrong. The feeling of self-efficacy is a strong indicator of performance.
Self-efficacy influences the interpretation of feedback and affective reactions that individuals have on the task at hand, aspects that affect performance.
There is a positive correlation between self-efficacy and perception of developments as opportunities rather than threats.
The higher a person's self-efficacy, the higher the goals they set and greater perseverance.
The orientation and training contribute to self-efficacy are determinants of performance in the use of change in the level of goals and perseverance.

5.3. ORIENTATION AND PRODUCTIVITY.
Among recent workers produce more dropouts than those who have already spent a time in the company and this is because its efficacy is lower.
A
cognitive dissonance is the difference between what the employee expected to find and what they actually are. For that dissonance is minimal that a person should know the characteristics of the job. The dissonance can also be caused by relationships with peers or superiors, or disagreement with the levels or control systems.
Socialization is the process by which people start to understand and accept the values, norms and beliefs that other people in the company.
If workers get DRRHH meet their personal goals, this will be more satisfied, which will benefit the company will have a cost of lower staff turnover.
Renewal is the process by which an employee leaves and is replaced. The renovation is expensive because the costs of recruitment and selection, creating a record, payroll, training, ...
The renewal cost is low for a low-skilled worker and is great in the case of a manager. The cost rises as the worker is to be renewed more integrated into the organization.
The
orientation program familiarizes you with the role to be played with the organization, its policies and with other employees. The HR Department delivers a copy of the employee handbook which explains your rights and company policy on issues such as holidays, absenteeism and rest periods. If there is no manual you have to explain verbally. Your immediate supervisor is to submit the new employee to their peers, explain the department's activities and its work.
The purpose of the orientation program is to prevent loneliness and isolation that is common the first few days, and may allow frustration, negative attitudes and low performance. A good program increases the likelihood that employee training is effective and helps you be productive.
The longer duration of an orientation program has two effects: reducing early and accelerating learning. They are related because they are more likely to stay in the organization who do a better job soon.
Orientation programs accelerate socialization. It is the process that will converge the organizational culture and individual personality. New employees have a strong desire for acceptance and tend to internalize how to do things and make them that way. The new employee has a number of skills that adding guidance and training to meet the needs of his post.

5.4. ORIENTATION PROGRAMS.
Orientation programs should be the responsibility of HR department and the superior. It involves two aspects: the general media, of interest to all employees, and the specific, more related to the particular position.
The general organizational issues and compensation must inform the DRRHH.
Some companies use video or welcome messages from executives to new members, but there is a great opinion against such methods.
Continued superior orientation to the issues relating to the post and the presentation of the new roommate. Sometimes we also need to meet people from other departments such as supervisors, accountants, ...


5.5. ANY ERRORS IN THE GUIDANCE.
To prevent the top from falling into the mistake of going over some issues, you can put a list of topics on which to base.
The system "buddy" is that the orientation of the upper complete with an experienced employee who accompanies the new employee, teaches the facilities, answer your questions and introduces you to advanced. The top has to establish good communication with employees from the beginning because if you lose employees prefer to see the problems with others who can influence the employee's opinion about the company and on top.
The upper DRRHH and must ensure that the employee does not feel:
- Saturated by excessive information in no time.
- Overloaded by completing forms.
- Humbled by receiving only menial tasks.
- Challenged to perform tasks that the chances of failure are great.
- Pushed to work with little guidance.
- Baffled by the broad orientation and low DRRHH of his department.

5.6. ADVANTAGES OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMS.
1. Mitigate the initial anxiety.
2. Facilitating social adaptation.
3. The new employee learns by its obligations.
4. The expectations of the employee on their work are more realistic.
5. The employee is productive much sooner and does his job better.
6. It reduces the need to monitor the new employee.
7. Reducing dropouts and renewals and the costs they entail.

5.7. MONITORING AFTER GUIDANCE PROGRAM.
The DRRHH can make a preliminary evaluation with a questionnaire in which it is determine where the employee has not been well targeted. The results can be used to determine what aspects can improve the program on a feedback process.
The most important is the follow-up to do the above. Should encourage them to consult him any questions, give a constant daily guidance.

5.8. THE LOCATION.
The location includes:
- The initial allocation of new employees.
- Promotion.
- The reassignment.
- The reduction of rank or degradation.
Employees who are already part of the company should be recruited, selected and targeted before posting. Only may require some guidance on its new role, his superior and his companions as the company already knows why that part of DRRHH not necessary, only the superior.
Are line managers who make most decisions on the location. When the changeover from one part to another of the organization, and higher management involved in the decision involving the upper old and new.
The role of DRRHH is to inform line managers on the company policy and advise the employee. The location has to serve the interests and objectives of the company and the worker.

5.9. THE PROMOTION.
Promotion is the transfer of an employee from one job to another that corresponds to a higher salary, greater authority and responsibility, a higher level. When he is promoted greater prestige.
The promotion is caused by recognition of the results obtained in the past and hope for a promising future. It is based on the need for a seat.
To be motivating should have:
1. A process leading to the selection of the right person.
2. A communication process. Ideally, people know how to select who is promoted, at least to be aware of the reasons why it was selected, as those who were considered candidates can fall into apathy.
In some jobs the confidence premium is superior to the subordinate but should be known that he has used this approach.
When an employee has a chance of promotion is said to have potential for advancement or promotion potential, which depends on the development potential is the momentum that has developed and reached high positions in the company.
An employee has a low perceived potential for progress if you think you will not be promoted. In this case, even the executives' "sociability down" by partnering with subordinates than with those who could learn.
Some methods of promotion are:
• The competitive examination: age, awards, timeliness, ...
• Opposition: Evidence-based classified and weighted.
• The age shift: many workers prefer this approach but from the point of view of the company is a bad system, especially for command posts and does not take into account the merits or skills and does not guarantee the requirements.
The promotion has drawbacks:
- It is difficult to measure the value of the achievements of individuals objectively.
- The Peter Principle states that the merit-based promotion leads to the incompetence of all and to stop promotions when they can not or do not know.
May be taken into account the merits but the requirement is to adapt to the post.
5.10. CHANGING FATE AND DEGRADATION.
Businesses, facing new technologies, have to retrain and adapt as suffer enormous internal changes and those who suffer are those who do not adapt and become obsolete. A good internal recycling policy will allow matching the right person to the appropriate position through training, coaching and outplacement of workers in newly created positions.
The
reassignment occurs when an employee moves from one job to another that corresponds to the same salary, responsibility, authority and level.
Degradation occurs when an employee moves from one job to another that it receives less pay, responsibility, authority and level.
To enable the organization to survive needs flexibility to adapt to change and should be able to redeploy its human resources where it matters most. The
reassignments can benefit by providing more jobs suitable for their knowledge and skills. It is sometimes done to capitalize on the experience acquired in the old business of the company moving to a newly created area can provide facilities for promotion.
The
degradation generates dissatisfaction, demotivation and dislike of the decision maker so the gradient can be a negative influence on the morale of the rest. Occurs:
- For disciplinary reasons, low productivity, excessive absenteeism.
- As an alternative to dismissal of a loyal employee can not continue to do its work because of age or health.
- Following other degradation. If we disregard high-level post is degrading who occupies a lower position to degrade another person.
In the very high level executives golden parachutes are common where the company will pay heavy compensation for dismissal. Degradation can be a cheap alternative to dismissal.

5.11. Labor Exchanges.
In some companies there are pockets of work in the reporting of positions that are not covered and the skills and skill levels required.
The internal labor exchanges facilitate the promotion of the more capable, better location, assist the achievement of the objectives of employees and the company.
Not all vacancies are advertised in the bag since the inclusion is less frequent as you raise the position of director-level posts.
Not all applicants seeking a promotion, as there are many cases that the application meets the need of getting a job that better suits made or vary the type of work or place of residence.



5.12. THE END OF EMPLOYMENT.
May occur for disciplinary reasons, economic or personal. DRRHH corresponds to procure the produce at the lowest evils.
In cases of resignation, retirement or death the end of the relationship does not depend on the willingness of the employer, except in retirement plans that can be aimed at downsizing or rejuvenation. For workers choose early retirement plans often incorporate economic incentives. The former employees have salaries higher than the recent so the company might be interested in the plan.
The initiative for the dismissal may come from the company or the employee.
Individual
dismissal may be due to disciplinary reasons or the need to recoup some jobs that are no longer accurate and received a quit claim dismissed by the vested rights.
The
redundancies typically be operated from a restructuring of the company and an overstaffed. The workers are organizing to defend their jobs and the problem becomes a conflict.

5.13. Outplacement.
Sometimes the company is forced to fire people with a long history and experience are highly valued and recognized those who remain in the company may feel discouraged.
The outplacement outplacement is external but can be defined as consulting and support for retraining or employment.
The internal relocation would Inplacement involves a change of assignment, a promotion or demotion.
In selecting staff has to find the right person for a position in the outplacement and trying to determine the right place for that person.
The outplacement is a defined program for each person with these elements:
- A study of the capabilities and limitations of the individual.
- A labor market analysis.
- A personal marketing plan and networking (networking).
- Training for working a shift if necessary.
- Advice for the preparation of your resume and interviews.
- Research into the needs and characteristics of the company which postulates.
- Mental health counseling and career guidance.
- Logistical support provided with a secretariat staff and equipment.
The company can expect to have to leave a specific person and that period can be exploited for redeployment.
There are several types of outplacement programs:
• Reorientation of executives: Lasts 6 months and is aimed at executives with experience.
• Active search of employment: Last 3 months and is aimed at middle managers, professionals and technicians.
• Basic Search Jobs: Last 1 month and is aimed at administrative, technical and skilled workers.
• Reorientation of work: lectures and courses are of short duration.
• Self-employment: If it is found that has the potential and capacity, is a special program to prepare and advise on the new activity.
People are in a vulnerable position emotionally sensitive and have low self-esteem they need personalized help.
It is desirable that the person feel supported by their company of origin and ideally to continue working on it for the duration of the program and will be felt useful, will not have the feeling of abandonment, the transition will be smooth and the dismissal will not harm morale and motivation of employees.
The phases of these programs are:
-
Raise the person's self esteem and motivate them. A counselor and a specialist in career HR assessed by detecting their strengths and weaknesses.
- Training, developing a preparedness plan to compete in the labor market, help prepare a good resume and practice interviewing.
-
Get the new job. The consultant will provide an office with the human and material resources to channel efforts. Networks are analyzed and candidate's own contacts, including direct contacts with scouts and recruitment agencies, will review the daily newspapers, Internet, interviews, assess and promote social activities for submission.
Mergers, acquisitions and restructuring layoffs entail elimination of departments, sections and complete activities.
The parties to the contract are outplacement company will drop a person and outplacement agency fees received by their company which originated the person, so many companies want to hire, rather than resorting to agency selection (to which must be paid), resort to the outplacement agency.
There are outplacement cuso one on "how to find employment, a firm of psychologists who do tests and reports, an employment agency, a job ...

5.14. THE PREVENTION OF LOSS OF HR.
The organization invests in staff recruitment, selection, orientation, training, development, ... When a person is separated from the company will lose the investment they had made in it.
Both resignations and dismissals can be reduced by creating jobs attractive and motivating described realistically, guidance and supervision, satisfactory work environment and training and development.
ITEM 6: training, development and career planning.

6.1. CONCEPTS.
Training is the training process of the HR of the company. For a person to meet the needs of his job skills are not enough and is oriented but requires training. Even people who are already inside the company require training for new destinations to promote it, to enjoy the versatility needed for different jobs. The ability of a company to adapt to the changing environment depends on the adaptability of the persons who compose it.
Training is also necessary to avoid professional obsolescence and improve efficacy.
Training programs for management positions (program of management development) are designed to improve capacity and increase knowledge of managers and their employees to become so. They consist of courses and stages of job rotation and training.
The difference between general training and development is not always very clear. Many programs that start only to train an employee in his current job, end up working for their development and enhance their skills.

6.2. BENEFITS OF TRAINING.
The main
advantages in terms of the person are:
- Assist the person in making decisions and solving problems.
- Raise the level of satisfaction.
- Improving confidence. Eliminate the fear of ignorance or competition.
- Collaborate with the achievement of personal goals.
- Satisfy personal needs.
- The person assumes motivational variables such as knowledge, achievement, progress and accountability.
- Helps to manage stress, tension, frustration and conflict.
- Improves conocimientote needs authority and leadership.
- Generate a positive feeling of greater knowledge.
- Reduce the fear of different tasks.
- Helps people to develop their speaking and listening skills.
From the standpoint of the organization, the main advantages are:
- Improving productivity and work quality.
- Improved knowledge of the jobs for those who play.
- It equips the organization to greater adaptability.
- Improves employee morale.
- Improving your image.
- Enabling people to identify with the goals.
- Improving relations between superiors and subordinates.
- Improve decision making and resolution of problems.
- Assist in the development of internal promotion.
- Develop leadership skills, motivation, loyalty and positive attitudes.
- Reduces costs in production, management, ...
- Develop the sense of trying to improve by being more competent and capable.
- Improved labor relations.
- Reduce costs of external consultants.
- Reaffirms the cultural values of the organization.
A perfectly formed to carry out their work may need training to work in a particular organization.
The same applies if a person moves from one place to another company.

6.3. The process of formation.
For training to be effective, must follow a series of stages. We begin by identifying needs and setting objectives. Then, determine the program content and learning principles with which one reaches the final program. This program will seek to influence the skills, knowledge and abilities of people. Finally, we evaluate results.

6.3.1. Assessment of needs.
The training has a very high cost, therefore efforts should be focused where it matters most.
They assessed the needs in people who must be educated regarding such matters. The needs may have different origins:
1. Changes from the environment: the need for computerization, technology, ...
2. The strategy of the organization itself: new products, new markets, ...
3. Existence of problems, frequent accidents, low productivity, low quality, absenteeism, ...
The initiative may come from the employee, DRRHH of line managers, ...
The HR Department should verify the existence of needs. A worker may follow a training program for not doing their job and a line manager may recommend to workers who continue to reward or to escape a troubled worker for some time.
Nor can decide that an employee follow a training program without consulting with his superior on the line. The decision should involve the worker, his superior and DRRHH. To determine the contents of the training program:
- Description of the job to identify the tasks. Then determining training needs.
- Wondering who will receive training in what aspects need to be formed. It is more motivating because they determine the content of training.
- The NGT Nominal Group Technique or, get ideas from a group of people on a specific topic. It asks a group of 10 or 15 trainers, managers and workers to make a written record of all training needs as they can think and ask each person to give an idea until they are exhausted. Participants voted the 5 most important training needs and yields the most pressing training needs.

6.3.2. Objectives of training and development.
The training must have targets that should be quantified wherever possible, but not always. The objectives are for the trainer and who will be formed with a scale indicator of what is expected to achieve by the end of the process. To measure the success.

6.3.3. Architecture of the program.
The content may be intended to generate specific skills, to provide general knowledge, or influence attitudes.
The program has to meet the needs of the individual and the organization. The objectives of the company and the individual does not always run parallel.
Disbursements that the company performed to train their employees is an investment in human capital, and will want to continue to invest while the value of the benefits to exceed the payments that have to do for training.
The worker has to distinguish between general training and special training for a concrete task. General training is one that can be useful in various types of businesses and special training is the only utility in the company where he works and would not help him find employment elsewhere. People are willing to pay a general education but not special.

6.3.4. Principles of learning.
From a practical standpoint, this is a satisfactory level of performance in the shortest possible time. The satisfactory level is one from which the costs of higher levels of education would outweigh the benefits gained from improved performance would achieve.
Learning principles are:
1. Active involvement in learning makes it faster and remember longer.
2. Repetition can be tedious but sets of knowledge in memory.
3. Relevance. The worker must be aware of the relevance of the task. If you think does not matter, shall not be motivated to perfect.
4. The relation. The greater between the training program and the post, the greater the speed of learning and their effective implementation.
5. The retroalimetación allowed and report the results to correct.
6.4. TYPES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.
Some training programs are implemented while working are:
1. Training on the job.
2. The apprenticeship training.
3. The rotation of jobs.
The training programs that develop outside of work are:
1. Lectures, videos, films and audiovisual works.
2. Case studies.
3. The performances (skits).
4. The simulation.
5. The readings, personal study and teaching schedule.
6. The awareness training workshops.

6.4.1. Training in the workplace.
It is used in relatively simple jobs, workers learn to practice carrying them in his post under the guidance of someone with experience.
To be effective the employee must be informed of the general characteristics of the post, its objectives and what is expected of him. The trainer does the work for the worker to mimic him and repeat as necessary. They are going to solve the doubts that can do the job without help.

6.4.2. Training in learning.
It is used in jobs where the training requires long periods of time and skill levels quite high. The new employee works as an assistant to another who has experience over a long period. The relationship established facilitates feedback.

6.4.3. The rotation of jobs.
For employees to have a global view it is desirable that rotate between various positions. The adaptability of workers who get it facilitates the organization of work and vacation, sick leave, resignations, and so on.
Before taking a new job, the employee receives a direct instruction. This applies especially to new employees who do not know the company and that will occupy a position in which it is desirable for the meet.
It also applies to development programs for management positions. They are subject to successive temporary assignments to various departments to become familiar with the activities of the company and know the role.

6.4.4. The lectures, videotapes, films and audiovisual works.
They have the disadvantage that they require very little effort to recipients who take a passive position.
The lectures require little preparation time and if the turnout is high, the unit cost may be very low.
The preparation of videos, movies and other media requires time and high cost.
These programs suffer the lack of participation, repetition, connection and feedback. It is appropriate that after exposure be made an exchange of views and viewpoints.

6.4.5. Case studies.
You learn to act in similar situations. The moderator posed the case and discusses the different decision alternatives, the advantages and disadvantages of each, to reach the final decision. The main objective is to teach you decide.

6.4.6. The representations.
The main objective is to achieve changes in attitudes and better relationships. Each participant plays the role of the other and see how you can also see their peers. By occupying the role of another finds difficulties.

6.4.7. The simulation.
Is to create the facilities and conditions similar to those of the post where workers practice and repeat the operations as if they were real. An advantage is that the training process does not interfere with normal work. If the job badly done can create dangerous situations, avoiding it is real.
We apply the firefighters, aviation companies, ...

6.4.8. The readings, personal study and teaching schedule.
Apply when learning does not require much interaction on the components of the training group or with the trainers.
Useful when training schedules available to members do not match or when they are geographically dispersed.
Ideally, the material is prepared specifically and self-sustaining. If not possible, it developed an educational guide to guide and set a course with the order in which we must study the books and materials.
The "game company" is a computer simulation technique in which the player is faced situations where they must make decisions. The computer processes and presents the results with what you get feedback. They have their drawbacks as before using them you need to have training (finance and marketing). No cover matters that are not quantifiable.

6.4.9. Training in sensitivity training.
The aim is to improve relations skills. Participants improve the understanding, share experiences, reactions, feelings, ... Moderator psychologist.
6.5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HR.
The HRD is conducting a long-term effort with which the company trains people who work there to gain access to higher level positions.
It enables new posts that appear in the HR plan are met domestically, which is achieved with less dependence on labor market and the people who will fill these posts and the company know. People are more motivated and capable of addressing professional obsolescence and social and technological change.

6.6. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAM.
The training process ends with the assessment. If successful, will have changed attitudes, skills and knowledge of people.
Before starting the training program set evaluation standards. Participants take an examination to determine their knowledge and end the program after another examination, comparison and determines the success of the program.
Have not the same skills that apply to practice. The real evaluation is performed when the worker is returned to his post.
It is likely that employees perform their work according to the training and they are forgetting, it is appropriate to follow up later.
One of the reasons that programs are successful is that recipients have low self-efficacy in learning.

6.7. THE SELF-EFFICACY IN LEARNING.
Is defined as the individual's belief in their ability to successfully acquire new attitudes, behaviors, knowledge and skills relating to work.
The failure of a training program is blamed on inadequate design or implementation but to bring about the desired changes must take into account people. Self-efficacy in learning is critical for the performance of training in the use of new knowledge, the level of goals that people are willing to take and his perseverance in reaching them.
Self-efficacy in learning is not the expression of a personality trait, or an optimistic attitude. Represents the cumulative impact of information and prior experience. The current self-efficacy beliefs depend on past actions and influence the future. Self-efficacy in learning depends on:
- The stage of the race: it increases as they advance stages of the race.
- The potential for progress or promotion: increases the greater the chances of promotion.
- The perceived relevance of prior learning: increased if past experiences have been positive.
6.8. Concepts relating to career planning.
The career is a list of all the posts held during working life.
The
race consists of all academic studies in schools and universities.
Professional
background is the sequential order in time following the various stations that make up the career.
Career
goals are the positions to be achieved.
The
Career planning is the process of selection of future career goals.
Professional
development consists of all those personal improvements to follow the plan.
The fact that career planning does not guarantee a person's career success, but enhances their achievement because it is easier to identify who attain their professional goals.
The DRRHH can not set the goals of a person and can not get the range without their efforts and collaboration. The DRRHH can help a person to set their goals but can not impose them.
The information has DRRHH LANNING necessary for careers in the HR plan through the known future needs of the company and the opportunities provided.

6.9. THE RACE LANNING AND INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS.
In most companies do not plan careers and that is the only professional and executive level.
Career planning benefits individuals and the company.
The lack of planning is typical of companies with few vacancies react with intensive training programs or external recruitment. Considers that the fate of each member is an individual problem and are given a lack of cohesion and low levels of identification of individuals with the company.
Career planning is a good tool for future staffing needs.
The
main advantages for the company are:
- The development of people with potential for advancement or promotion.
- Reducing dropouts and costs of the renovations.
- Vacancies are filled by internal promotions.
- Employees use their full potential trying to achieve their goals.
- Avoiding HR there underused in lower level jobs to which they might occupy.
- In recognizing the skills people are more motivated.
People value plus the following factors:
- Fairness: equal opportunities and promotion systems.
- The attention of superiors: that his superiors want to play an active role in planning their careers and to inform them of their performance.
- The information on existing opportunities.
- Satisfaction with the race meet depends on the age and occupation.
For information about opportunities you are giving increasing importance. In many organizations employees are unaware their future and even those who are at present.
If from the direction of the company encourages career LANNING more likely that people set career goals and work to achieve them, being more motivated to form. The average level of education will be higher and will provide the right people for the vacancies.

6.10. HR DEPARTMENT AND CAREER PLANNING.
The first initiative of such training can be. To increase the interest may be organized seminars. The DRRHH should advise employees who wish to plan their careers.
Another feature is the information. Pursue a career in a job family requires not just training and if the reports on DRRHH job families existing employees may find alternative sustainable careers. You can also give information about career alternatives.
To prevent employees avoid the seats that are not nice can be a progressive sequence of posts in which to achieve some posts is obliged to pass by others.
Another function is advising employees in setting objectives and determining the race.
The main misunderstanding is that an employee thinks the consultant's role is to give promotions and pay increases because he has to make efforts.
Each counselor must know the plan of the company's HR and the various positions and should ensure that the employee performs a self-assessment that includes: the completion of a questionnaire that attempts to identify the type of work that most interests the advice, that for which their attitudes are favorable.
To determine your abilities, skills and experience, the worker should answer another similar questionnaire in which each type of work you are asked for their specialized skills, personal skills, experiences, ...
Other hazards that may occur by the reaction of the employee are:
- You can focus your attention on one part of the race (social prestige, salary, ...).
- If the counselor tells him that he is unqualified may think that s wrong.
- It is difficult to understand that others are more qualified than them.
- Refuse to accept that they need further education to pursue a career.
6.11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLAN.
Individual development includes some aspects in which the person needs to improve, so it is imperative that you are determined to achieve their career goals and to accept the efforts and responsibilities.
The
main aspects of individual development are:
1.
Doing well do know: To improve its performance. It is necessary that those responsible for his promotion to know there is know their qualities and to warn its good performance, participating in decision-making committees, commissions of various kinds, social, ...
2.
Taking advantage of mobility: It may involve shifting business or looking for better opportunities. The frequency of change should not be excessive if it is to create an image of lack of loyalty.
3. Loyalty to the company and superiors: It is unlikely that a manager will support an employee who has been unfair to him or the company. Should be able to trust people more so the higher your position in the company.
4.
Using the experience of others: The oldest can advise on their positive or negative experiences, successes and failures. Some even have some informal authority and support may be appropriate for promotion.
5.
Being the right hand: The promotion of the superior may involve the promotion of his right hand. The existence of cohesive groups by ties of loyalty poses the danger of entering into war.
6.
Creating Opportunities: The greater the knowledge, more opportunities are presented with. Also belonging to alumni associations, professional associations, ...
7. Harnessing media that puts the company: If you set up a training program because it considers it appropriate to follow and if one does not show a lack of interest that does not favor it.
8.
Use the feedback: The employee must use all feedback to let you know as he is tried in the company. In companies that do not exist, workers do not know whether to improve or not, what and how.











ITEM 7: EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE AND MERIT.

7.1. CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVES.
The performance evaluation is the process of assessing the way in which a worker performs the tasks of his job.
The objective is to obtain information. The question is to what extent the person in question performs his job well.
The first interested in this information is the worker himself, that it needs feedback to know how to comply with their duties and improve.
Superiors need such information to know what steps to take. When the performance level is low, superiors should take corrective action and if high should compliment the employee.
The information obtained is essential to improve performance, to determine the compensation, to identify training needs to determine who may be subject to an individual career plan, ...
The main areas where this information is needed are:
1. The improved performance.
2. The identification of training needs. A poor performance may be because you need more training. An excellent performance may reveal a potential that remains largely untapped due to lack of training.
3. The compensation policy. Many companies consider performance to establish their compensation.
4. Location decisions. The poor performance of a person in a position may be that is not well located.
5. Career planning, for n command can be the subject of an individual career plan, usually be required a minimum level of performance.
6. The design review of the post. Poor performance may indicate that the post is not well designed.
7. The detection of problems. A poor performance may be because there are defects in the selection procedures or guidance.

7.2. THE ROLE OF IMMEDIATE SUPERIOR IN DRRHH AND EVALUATION
Everyone in the company is constantly being evaluated. This evaluation is informal and serves to correct deviations from the wanted and unwanted behaviors and reward competent and adequate performance or inadequate punishment.
Being informal and not systematic, the system and the way it assesses the foundations and the agreements may follow guidelines and criteria that are not in favor of the interest and development of the company, but from individuals. There will be a system of objective measurement and rational.
The higher an employee makes a nearly continuous informal assessment, so we can consider that the formal evaluations are unnecessary.
A formal evaluation takes time and stop the daily work, therefore, the systematic formal evaluations are not always well received in the linear hierarchy.
In other cases, see above formal evaluations relief against the position of having to be the ones who say who they met and who do not.
The top should participate but should not be solely responsible for the report.
The DRRHH deals with evaluations of all employees. This centralization provides uniformity to the design and practice of evaluation, which allows you to compare similar groups.
The approach may differ depending on the position and status within the company.
The system designed DRRHH assessment but the assessment is usually the task of the employee's immediate superior.

7.3. PRE-EVALUATION.
Any evaluation system must have two characteristics:
1. It should be easy to be understood by the evaluators and the evaluated.
2. Should focus on essential aspects of the job. In those that are important for the post is to play effectively and efficiently.
There are some
elements that are common to all methods of evaluation:
1.
Performance standards: The parameters in relation to which objective measurements are made. Resultaos are desired in each position. We know by analyzing the job, which show specific performance criteria.
The environment changes, the jobs change and performance standards also change.
From information obtained from the analysis of jobs, defines the essential elements and performance standards. If there is no such information, or the job has changed, is by direct observation of work and interviews with the supervisor.
2. The performance measure: it is an indicator of the level that would rate the performance. It should be easy to use, reliable and provide information on aspects of the post that determine performance.
Observations can be direct (the person performs the evaluator) or indirect (using statistics, reports, ...).
Measurements can be objective (can be verified by another person and are qualitative) or subjective (quantitative and often more difficult to verify).
According to the direct or indirect observation and measurement that is objective or subjective, you get a degree of precision and accuracy differently.
When possible, it is preferable that the measurements are objective and that observations are straightforward.
Subjective measures are often unavoidable, but its accuracy is less than objective measures. When based on indirect observations, accuracy and reliability is lower still.
Indirect observations are especially unreliable when obtained in hypothetical situations, but sometimes unavoidable.
3. The subjectivity of the evaluator: The main difficulty is that the evaluator biases enter into the evaluation when it is not fair. The origins of the biases are:
• Personal relationships with those evaluated, sympathy or antipathy towards them, have an open mind before evaluating people.
• The bias based on gender, age, race, religion or color of hair.
• The tendency to avoid extreme measures. Many evaluators tend to avoid very high action and very low average scores tend to be assigned. This will adversely affect persons with excellent performance and benefits to those who perform poorly his post.
• The effect of more recent events tend to have more weight than they should in the subjective measure. This happens even in the evaluation group.
• The image to the evaluator's self or you want to convey to others. Some people wish to have them by other generous and tend to evaluate in excess. Others want others to know they are not willing to tolerate, thus tend to underestimate performance.
To mitigate these distortions can be achieved at a triple front:
- Appropriately to the evaluators to know the origins of the distortions and know the importance of assessments and decisions that HR practices are exercised by evaluations before judging.
- Making evaluators have feedback, knowing how wise or unwise to have been their past evaluations.
Selecting appropriate assessment methods. These methods are of two types: those that focus on the past and those oriented to the future.

7.4. Methods of evaluation based on past performance.
They have the advantage of being based on something that has happened and that can be measured. The drawback is that they can prevent or improve what has already happened, but generate feedback to the employee knows whether to improve and what aspects should.
The methods commonly used in practice are:
1.
The score factors: It is the oldest and most widely used. The evaluator level where, in his view, is the employee's performance in each of the factors that are relevant in the post. Scoring is based exclusively on the opinion of the evaluator.
The main advantage is its simplicity and that requires that the evaluator have great knowledge. The main drawback is the lack of subjectivity that incorporates.
In a common form for the assessment of all its employees, the number of factors to be considered is enormous, because in some places are important factors and some other places are different, which makes it lose its simplicity.
2.'s Checklist: the evaluator is to present a list of phrases from which to choose those that best describe the performance and characteristics of the employee. The evaluator is the top rated and DRRHH can assign a different weight to each descriptor.
If the number of descriptors provides an accurate enough assessment, but if the descriptors are too general is lost for the post.
The advantages are its low costs, is simple and requires no great knowledge to the evaluator. The disadvantages are that subjectivity may introduce biases, some descriptors may be misunderstandings and others can be nuanced. If the allocation is not appropriate weights, the assessments are wrong.
3.
The forced-choice: We present the evaluator a set of Descriptive phrases grouped in pairs. In each pair, the evaluator must choose one. Typically, the two expressions are favorable or unfavorable. Instead of two sentences can be three or four alternatives. The evaluator must choose the mdescriptive ore and then specialists descriptors grouped into categories such as learning ability, human relations or performance capacity. The number of times the assessor chooses phrases in these categories determines the effectiveness of the evaluated in each of these facets. This facet know where you should improve.
With this method reduces the bias, is simple and suitable for many jobs.
4. The record of the proceedings criticism: The assessor maintains a list of the highlights of the assessment which can be positive or negative. The register is a brief description of each performance.
It is useful for the worker to have feedback. If we only take into account the latest events can fall into the error of the most recent events. Including performances very old the worker may have the feeling that you are always judged by mistakes made long ago.
5.
Comparative analysis: This part of the performance standards and comparing actual performance evaluated with these standards.
For example if a seller meets the requirements is evaluated with the highest score and is in breach of requirements as the score is falling.
The downside is that you can only watch a limited number of elements is therefore not applicable to complex jobs.
6.
The field assessment: This is to avoid the distortions introduced by the subjectivity of the evaluator. HR expert spoke requesting information on the performance of their top rated, prepare an assessment that refers to the superior who reviews and discusses with the expert and the evaluated. The final evaluation is recorded in the DRRHH.
7.
The test: Use in jobs where what matters is knowledge. An obvious constraint is relevant to the post and may consist of written tests, oral or practical. Sometimes they are very cheap and others expensive.
8. Benchmarking: comparing performance of a person with their peers. The charge of the evaluation is superior. They are useful for promotions, awards and salary increases based on merit because they allow employees to rank worst to best, but they are very influenced by the subjectivity of the evaluator and offer very little feedback to the evaluator.
The results of the comparisons are not communicated to those evaluated because it can create tension and internal competition that does not benefit teamwork.
As comparisons are inevitable and tend to promote those who work better than others, has more merit or is it more suitable for the new post.
Comparison methods used are:
- Ranking: It forces the evaluator to rank the employees from best to worst and it is preferable to use more than one evaluator to avoid subjective elements. It has the advantage of simplicity and the disadvantage that says who is better than another, but not the distance between them.
- Distribution obligation: The assessor classifies evaluated in various performance groups. They used all kinds of information: the overall performance, sales figures, number of pieces made with higher quality, ...
The advantage is that sources of subjectivity are eliminated and the disadvantage is that it forces some employees qualify poorly and may feel wronged.
- Allocation of points: It forces the evaluator to distribute a certain number of points among the employees in proportion to their level of performance. Determines who are better than others, and notes the distance between them. Subjective distortions can intervene.
- Comparison in pairs: The evaluator has to compare each employee with each other evaluated the same group. In the box in which the intersection occurs between the horizontal row of an employee and another vertical column, lists the employee number that corresponds to the best performance and each employee is assigned a point each time it appears in one box. Employees are better the more points they have.
Although this method is prone to subjectivity, is safe from the tendency to avoid extreme measures and distortions caused by benevolently or requirement of the evaluator, then forced him to qualify some better than others.

7.5. METHODS forward-looking assessment.
The evaluation methods for future-oriented focus on the employee's potential and its ability to achieve future goals.
The methods used are:
1.
The self-assessment: useful when the purpose of evaluation is to facilitate individual development. When evaluating themselves is unlikely to adopt a defensive attitude. If used to determine needs for improvement can help people set personal goals for future improvement. There are grills called self questionnaires that help the self-assessment.
2. The management by objectives: A program designed to motivate employees through their involvement in setting their own goals, and knowledge of the factors used to evaluate their performance. This is to motivate people with high level needs. It has 3 phases:
- The subordinate and his superior and meet the objectives set for the next period. In some cases there are intermediate levels to verify the extent to which the objectives are reached.
- Back to meet to establish progress.
- At the end of the period evaluated the results.
The objectives should be expressed numerically and once established, the subordinate's responsibility to get them. At the end of the period we analyze the goals that were achieved and those not, what is the basis of the evaluation, which involved the evaluation.
The main advantages are:
- Motivate people by setting their own goals and knowledge of how they will be evaluated.
- People familiar with the tasks to develop the objectives to be achieved, which can measure their progress.
- You can give people greater autonomy to be responsible for their objectives and to monitor their performance.
- Increase communication between subordinates and superiors.
- Facilitates understand how they contribute their efforts to the overall objectives.
- It is clear information for decisions on pay and promotion.
Although raised a difficulty of quantification of objectives applies to all levels of the company. In the multinationals is used to direct subsidiaries in other countries but implementation is the most classic of the sales force.
Information on the degree of achievement of the objectives must be submitted in writing by the subordinate, which can create complex forms of information that create an unnecessary administrative work. Some managers have difficulty in communicating with subordinates individually and make them short-term objectives. The objectives must be agreed and that if taxes motivation disappears.
3. Psychological evaluations: Determine the potential future. It involves interviews, psychological tests, interviews with superiors and review of other evaluations. The psychologist writes an evaluation with its intellectual, emotional, motivational, which are useful for predicting future performance.
You can focus on work and fitness for a particular or be general and relate to future potential. Decisions can be made in placement, and career development.
Many are suspicious of psychologists, their knowledge, the reliability of its results and its ability to determine the development potential of a person.
4.
Assessment Centers: These are programs that use simulation techniques, exercises, meetings and team problem solving, to identify employees with leadership and promotion decisions. The evaluation is carried out by several people and their scores are averaged to get a result. As objective.
The method is expensive and time consuming, requires special facilities and a set of evaluators, psychologists and specialized personnel. In addition, the duration of the evaluation are found outside of their job.
The use of these centers is more common in large enterprises requiring high-level managers. To reduce costs an evaluation conducted by internal mail in which he sent to the evaluated tests, exercises and questionnaires to fill and send back to the evaluators.
In some companies use executive committees that evaluate the potential of managers and lower level managers who generally meet once a year.

7.6. REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION PROCESS.
Line managers in most cases act as evaluators but often are not familiar with the techniques, no interest and consider it an activity imposed by impeding the daily work.
The evaluators training sessions focus on the study of procedures, mechanics, potential subjective errors and distortions.
It's important to see the importance of evaluation in performance improvement, identifying training needs, compensation policy, location decisions, career planning, review of job design and troubleshooting.
Experts consider it appropriate to carry out two evaluations per year to each employee, unless you are in a particular situation.
The training of reviewers remains with the feedback on the quality of evaluations and their outcomes, conducted through interviews of assessment where the assessor informs the employee about their performance in the past and its potential in the future. The evaluator can focus these interviews:
1. Tell-and-sell: A review of employee performance and convinces him that it improves.
2. Tell-and-listen: Employee raises their reasons, excuses and defends its performance. The assessor advises the employee on how to do better.
3.
Problem Solving: Identify problems and resolve performance with training, advice or relocation and setting new goals.
The interview is to establish a positive dialogue for improving performance, the employee has confidence in its ability to improve and achieve their goals.
It should follow the following guidelines:
- Highlight the positive aspects of employee performance.
- The objective is to improve the performance and no disciplinary action.
- Conduct interview in private.
- Be specific, avoiding generalities and vagueness.
- Refocusing the comments on performance and not on personal characteristics.
- Keep calm avoiding discussing.
- Identify the specific actions to improve performance.
- Highlight the availability of the evaluator to collaborate and help you improve.
- End the interview highlighting the positive aspects of performance.
If assessments show that the overall level of performance at the company is low, may be due to errors such as faulty targeting in HR planning, analysis and job design in the pursuit of personal in the selection, orientation at the location, training or career planning.
























ITEM 8: COMPENSATION POLICY.

8.1. OBJECTIVES OF COMPENSATION POLICY.
The company must ensure that the right people are kept satisfied and this is achieved with an appropriate compensation policy.
The pay is a factor to motivate, attract and keep people.
The compensation policy is affected by the strategy of the company that also affects other functions such as search DRRHH selection.
Compensation is what people who work in a company are getting for their work. It is a balance between worker satisfaction and competitiveness of the company.
The remuneration policy should be consistent with the objectives set by the company. The way resources are distributed is an indication of the company's strategy and what you value most, such as loyalty and seniority, productivity or the potential of people.

8.2. REQUIREMENTS OF THE REMUNERATION POLICY.
In addressing adequate police salaries, must be taken DRRHH functions, the interests of the company and its aims and interests of people, not to mention the legal framework.
The requirements to be respected in restorative DRRHH are:
1.
Conditions of effectiveness: The compensation policy should be designed with customer orientation, responding to the objectives and business strategies effectively. Should be taken into account:
Encourage, assist the satisfaction of the people and the goal of attracting and keeping the right people.
Be consistent with the objectives of the company. Labor costs represent the largest expense incurred in the business, and an excessive increase may cause an impact on prices of products dangerous to the survival of the company. CPI may rise more than expected and adversely affect the purchasing power of salaries.
Competitiveness: Achieving the goals of attracting and retaining people. We will have to offer higher salaries compared to the rest of the competitors: the level of compensation must be competitive.
Flexibility: The need to adapt to changes in the sector or in society. With wage restraint in times of crisis can help improve the economy of a sector or even a country.
Simplicity in implementation if ye interpretation: The ideal is simple systems with few levels of compensation and homogeneity among workers. When every employee is a case the system is complex, but when it comes to all alike the system is very simple.
2.
Terms of justice: The politics of compensation must be equitable.
Internal Equity: For the jobs that have similar functions and responsibilities, their respective share similar compensation.
External Equity: Employees have similar compensation to those enjoyed by employees of other companies with similar duties and responsibilities.
3.
Conditions of compliance: This is a response to the demands of labor law and the commitments made to workers individually or collectively.
Labor legislation: Governments set an annual minimum wage. In collective agreements also reflects the outcome of negotiations in each sector in terms of pay.
Individual Business: The company agrees, in the labor contract with workers to observe what was negotiated according to the circumstances of each worker as a professional and as a person.
Commitments tacit: The DRRHH acquires a moral commitment to the agreements made tacitly. Compliance and monitoring of these are a clear example of good work and business ethics.

8.3. DIFFICULTIES IN THE DESIGN OF COMPENSATION POLICY.
Business objectives must be quantified but it is not easy to do in some of them. Nor is it easy the task of combining these requirements with personal goals, social and business.
1.
Problems related to effectiveness: The first difficulty is the motivational skills of wages. The effectiveness of motivational factors depends on the needs of individuals and the ability to have these factors to cover them. The assessment of this satisfaction and overcoming needs through the pay is different for each person. Money ceases to be a significant factor in motivation from certain levels. With the money demands are met or requirements which vary from person to person.
2. Difficulties concerning justice:
-
In relation to external equity: The perceptions of workers to mark the relevant competitive market will determine that a business more attractive than another, not only for their wages but by other aspects.
The usual way to study the wage competitiveness of remuneration surveys undertaken by different public and private entities.
The comparison of pay is difficult for several aspects:
• Correspondence with the sectors to which it is compared. Is required compared to other sectors due to high labor mobility. The sectors are configured variously implying that due to the high internationalization of enterprises, the comparison within each sector is increasingly unrepresentative.
• Correspondence between the different positions compared: We need a detailed description of the positions being compared, since in different companies can define the way a job with different responsibilities.
• Reliability of data: Sometimes this information is not quite real because it tends to hide in some sectors. It is customary in the private sphere.
- In relation to internal equity: individual negotiations are common to require a degree of discretion as it can create discomfort among colleagues who are doing the same job different wages.
They may also consider it unfair that a newcomer has more compensation than those who take time in the company, although the circumstances of the labor market and the high level of skills of the newcomer.
3.
Difficulties on compliance: The biggest difficulty is the different interpretation that derives from the tacit commitments. It is necessary that people know the reason for each inequality. Controlling costs is not only a goal but a limitation. The costs are limited by income and by the goals of survival and growth of the company.

8.4. Determining remuneration.

8.4.1. Historical.
The internationalization of companies has influenced the form of management and business strategies and employment and pay. The compensation policy has gone from being uniform and union to be variable and personalized.
In times of economic crisis and sectoral wage discrimination is increased and fringe benefits increase.
The remuneration policy is a clear example, clear and public what values the company and how to value it.
According to the business strategy, the organization can gain competitive advantages with its policy of compensation following 3 strategies:
1.
Leading the labor market in terms of compensation: Responds to the idea that money is the most influential element in meeting people. It aims to attract and retain qualified people. It involves high costs could be covered only with the assurance that the gains of that worker will be recovered. It is applied in very competitive and great benefits.
2. Equalizing salaries to the average level: It is the most widely used.
3.
Provide salaries below what was offered in the market: It is followed in areas where flexibility and capacity to decide on remuneration is restricted. This applies to public authorities to use other mechanisms such as job security, decisiveness, respect, ...
The wage structure is the salary range of the company in terms of categories and levels that exist in it.
8.4.2. Rates of pay.
Direct compensation is one that is directly linked to the job and their performance and includes:
- Basic salary.
- Increase for performance.
- Incentives.
- Salary adjustment.
The indirect compensation consists of the set of services and benefits offered by the organization to its members. The services and benefits does not depend on the position or his level of performance, but granted by membership in the organization. Includes:
- Protection Programs.
- Services and other benefits.
- Remuneration for time not worked.
The remuneration received as a consideration for his work is structured:
- Salary according to job.
- Pay for performance.
- Other items wage.

8.5. WAGES BASED ON THE JOB.
It's part of the salary which corresponds to the characteristics of the position regardless of the way of performing and the degree of compliance.
The valuation of the posts were made based on an analysis of the positions where they are not assessing their performance, but the activity and the responsibility it brings. The behavior of the person needs to be assessed by the superior or colleagues and will take its toll on your personal retribution, but regardless of the value of the post.
It is appropriate for pay determination is made at the same time planning. This is a formal and systematic process by which it determines the relative value of each position with the aim of defining their remuneration. With the assessment is aware of the importance of a post.
The establishment of wage levels depend on the valuation of positions is based on job analysis, are valued as factors inherent in its complexity or its contribution to the business. Its implementation is subject to labor law and supply and demand.
For job evaluation takes into account the data analysis of posts:
- Responsibility for the post.
- Skills required.
- Effort required.
- Working conditions.
The question is how much better a position in relation to another.
The correct assessment of the jobs it will streamline the comparison of charge and may be used for the purposes of performance measurement, wage negotiations, recruitment, selection and promotion.
Communication and participation allows individuals to receive compensation will have more information and understand the system.
The various rating systems used differ in importance given to information provided by job analysis, and applied in different organizations or departments depending on the degree of complexity.
They begin by describing the scope of the assessment, the appointment of the head of the evaluation and selection of relevant factors.
The assessment is made by a Valuation Committee composed of persons associated with all production processes. This committee is responsible for selecting factors and job descriptions.

8.5.1. Job evaluation systems.
-
The simple subjective ranking of the post.
It is the simplest and easiest to interpret. From the information extracted from job analysis establishes a hierarchy without the inclusion of new information or analysis, giving more importance to representing a major contribution.
The utility is its simplicity, it gives no information about the differences in compensation. Could be applicable to small departments.
In a more complex enterprise application is limited by not taking into account other relevant factors in the job evaluation process. It provides information about the relative comparison of the charges, not to provide information for setting wages.
- Assignment of levels.
It is based on classification according to the description of levels. If a rightful job description is assigned the level of that description. The compensation level depends on the job. The jobs are divided into groups and grade levels are ranked from the most complex to the simplest. As more specific characteristics of the groups, the system is more complicated and will increase costs. It is the most used by public administrations.
-
A comparison of factors.
It is designed by Benge and part of the IDENTIFICATION
ion of the key factors that are part of the composition of various positions and then assess each of these factors in each of the posts. Taking into account the remuneration of those key positions is assigned corresponding to each of the factors. The other posts are ranked in the same manner as in the previous method and added the part of compensation depending on which factors were necessary.
The steps are:
1. Identification of key factors: They have to be significant factors common to a variety of positions: production, sales, management, administration, ...
2. Identification of core positions: These are positions that are commonly found in the labor market, making it easy to determine compensation. Should understand the essential factors to be assessed.
3. Valuation currency units of each factor at each position: depending on the intensity of their implementation and importance.
4. Determining the status of key positions in a comparison table of factors.
5. Valuation of the other posts: Using core positions are valued reference other posts and they are placed in the comparison chart of factors.
- Score.
It is the most widely used and applied Lott. It is more complex but more accurate. This should identify the most relevant factors. This description is often more detailed and considered the levels at which factors can be graded and given a maximum value as the weighting of each. This information will be contained in the manual grading to assess all charges.
- Hay.
Edward must establish the method of guides and profiles. It is a combination of the allocation method and the comparative levels of factors. It is used for administrative and technical posts. The factors assessed are the ability. Problem solving and accountability. These factors are subdivided considering new subfactors common to the various posts.

8.5.2. Calculation of salary based on the valuation of the post.
The remuneration of each post should reflect its internal and external assessment in the labor market.
Measured in neat salaries and wages paid in the market, and abscissa the internal assessment. For each of the positions that have external information is drawn at the intersection point between the external assessment and internal assessment obtained a cloud of points. Draw the line that best fits the point cloud called wage trend line. The remuneration of the other posts is determined for the ordinate value corresponding to their points as the trend line employees.
To facilitate the administration of compensation is appropriate to group the posts and categories. When using the simple subjective ranking system, the categories emerge from the same application. If using other systems must be made categorization. In establishing the categories according to the scores, the wage trend line is replaced by a series of ascending levels. The posts located in each category receive the same pay.
If the number of categories is very high, the administration is more complex. If it is too low, in each category will appear very heterogeneous positions would receive the same compensation. In each organization have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each classification.
If you keep rigidly to the compensation of all positions at each level must be identical, not distinguish those who perform their job better and motivate people to improve their performance. Most companies work with a certain margin within each category and the salary of each position and person may differ for a variety of accessories.

8.6. PERFORMANCE-BASED PAY.
The main objective is to strengthen the conduct of those who do better work and it is important to identify areas of desired improvement. Setting the goals is possible to measure, compare and evaluate results.
The performance-based pay is compensation that corresponds to each person in relation to the level of achievement in the performance of the duties of the post. Some companies have programs to identify high-potential professionals based on individual development of employees likely to fill key positions and are linked to salary increases to ensure continuity.
The performance assessment is applicable to value both the attitudes and skills. These are assessed through a survey conducted by persons who have direct responsibility over others. The questions are grouped by fives up to 50, scoring from 1 to 5. These questions include those related to the level of commitment, adaptation to change, performance, initiative, flexibility, responsibility, ability to promote change, efficiency, effectiveness, ownership of the goals as their own ability to anticipate problems, ...
Every other person in charge of developing the questionnaire, obtaining a baseline assessment year. From this, the wage will be increased by an agreed share in the budgets within the salary range for each of the scores.
- Incentive schemes: Incentive schemes linked to performance pay. Sometimes we see a decline in quality of products and services offered as incentives increase based on increased production. There should be other incentives that reward other aspects.
Incentives can be classified as:
1.
Individual incentives.
• Piece work: Once the output target, the production that exceeds what is paid. It applies in cases where the quantity is more important than quality and highly automated.
• Commissions: This is a percentage of the price of the product. It applies to the commercial area and is usually set installments. They are credited for attracting customers, for accuracy in forecasting sales. The OPR sales incentive and certainty in the forecasts, spurring the seller for the foreseeable
ion of sales and improved planning. It takes into account differences between areas as both the projections and targets are consistent with the characteristics and potential of each area. Overrepresented can decouple the seller of the company that can feel like self and if it is too low can not meet its target incentive. The DRRHH must find the optimal relationship between the two parts of the compensation package.
2. The incentives of groups. Work teams have gained popularity, displacing individual consideration. The increase reflects an adjustment group incentive pay systems of the labor situation. These incentives enhance the job satisfaction of participants. Include:
• The cost-cutting plans: It encourages people depending on a factor they can control: the costs. Its aim is to encourage to contribute ideas and suggestions to reduce costs and in return receive a share of the savings achieved. They form committees of employees and motivate people to participate in improving the management of the company.
The Scanlon plan focuses on reducing labor costs and improve quality. Accepted following a vote by workers. It is characteristic of the production area.
The
Rucker plan focuses on reducing labor costs and raw materials and equipment wear. The initiative from the management. It covers all employees.
Improshare The plan seeks to reduce costs but indirectly by reducing working hours enforced. The initiative from the management. It covers all employees and focuses on saving time, rather than cost savings.
They put on probation for one year and they are good can be taken as permanent clearing. They are more effective in industrial enterprises.
• Participation in benefits: Employees are part of the business project. It must combine their participation with a strong entrepreneurial culture. If not communicating properly can lead to discontent. There is an incentive to improve performance and not related to the benefits of the company, as difficult to measure their performance contributes to the profits of the company, the temporal distance between the daily effort and the time is perceived participation is an incentive for it to be excessive.
• Plans of share ownership: The intention is that people be more involved with their commitment and participation. It ranges from providing loans for purchase, sale of shares at a lower price or free transmission used in the higher levels. Stresses the purchase option plan of the shares being offered to senior management that may be effective during a certain period and if the market price is higher than the option, the purchase workers.
8.7. BENEFITS fringe.
In our country, fringe benefits have been minimal, but the tendency is to rise. A list of these benefits can be:
- Life Insurance.
- Accident insurance.
- Insurance for medical services.
- Plans for the purchase of shares.
- Programs of sporting activities.
- Benefits for holiday periods.
- Special benefits for childbirth, marriage or family death.
- Cafeteria / dining services or vouchers for food.
- Support for employee training and education of their children.
- Child care.




























ITEM 9: COMMUNICATION AS A TOOL OF DRRHH.
9.1. COMMUNICATION AND TRAINING.
Communication is essential for management decision-making. Lack of communication leads to employees feeling of discomfort and discontent.
The developed DRRHH Communication System Human Resources covers the ways in which information will be transmitted. Communication is information that is added to active listening and emotion.
In small businesses the communication will be informal while the large will have a formal system in addition to informal and indirect communication.
Effective communication does not guarantee high performance, while communication can ensure defective when distrust and demotivation.
The communication process is very complex because it involves emotional factors, psychological and mental and technical tools.

9.2. PROCESS AND ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION.
Communication is the transmission of signals by a common code to the sender and receiver.

9.2.1. The process of communication.
A person wants to convey an idea to another person or group and places so that the receiver understands it verbally, in writing or through other means. The receiver receives and interprets the message indicating the issuer has received the message.

9.2.2. The elements of communication.
1. The issue: It is who throws the message and may be an individual or group. In business people communicate with others in the company, with customers, other businesses, government agencies, ... And the company also receives messages.
2. Codification: Sets the language that can be verbal, visual, written, gestural, ...
3.
The message: This is what the communicator wants to transmit and may be intentional (be communicated explicitly wanting to cause an effect on the recipient) or unintentional (unconsciously emitted).
4.
The channel: The means used to convey the message (written, lecture, video, personal computer, reward systems, ...). La comunicacióion through gestures also transmits messages to be learned to interpret. The inflection given to the voice has a meaning for the sender and the recipient. There is a gestural communication that everyone interprets the same but there are other gestures that mean the same in different cultures. Executives and managers are set far in the message and very little on the medium of choice that can cause a major impact on the effectiveness of communications.
Richard Daft and Robert Lengel established the need to adapt to the medium is the message content and distinguish between rich media (for complex messages that need immediate feedback) and bare means (For simple messages and routine).
5. Decoding: Includes the interpretation that the receiver makes the received message. The code used by the issuer should be as close to the receiver.
6.
Wide receiver: A person or group that receives the message.
7. The feedback: Provides through a channel, the response to the message sender. It can be verbal, written, a grimace or gesture or action.
8. Noise: Anything that distorts the message. It may be in the elements of communication, be part of the communication system or personal level. According to its intensity may make communication impossible.

9.2.3. Sources of noise.
Noise can distort communication at any stage, may come from several sources:
1.
The frame of reference transmitters and receivers encode and decode the message based on their experiences, if they do not coincide not understand. They may have different frames of reference people who have different roles within the company. The level occupied in the organization also makes them have different reference systems.
2. Selective perception: when a person is processed only the information that matters, that agrees with their beliefs. When a person only process information that confirms their own worldview and things, is acting through stereotypes. People who have preconceived ideas tend not to listen to what they do not care.
3.
The judgments of value: When people sign an overall value to the message before receiving the complete communication, is making value judgments.
4.
The credibility of the source: According to the confidence that the sender transmitted.
5.
The semantic problems: The same words can have different meanings for the sender and the receiver and the fact that understanding is in the receiver and not the words used. Professional groups tend to use words that only they understand.
6. The leak: It consists of manipulating the information provided. Subordinates can leak into the upper just the information that is favorable. A company with many levels of management (high organization) provides additional facilities for filters having a few levels of management (flat organization).
7.
The differences of position: Communication between senior managers and employees is very difficult. The manager is related to a limited number of people because of time or ignorance.
8.
The behavior of proximity: Edward Hall provides different areas:
- Zone intimate: Up to 46 cm.
- Personal Area: From 46 cm. up to 1.22 meters.
- Social area: Between 1.22 and 3.66 meters.
- Public area: over 3.66 meters.
The proximity raises a major barrier in communication between different cultures. The personal and intimate areas constituting an area of privacy which should not be entered.
9. Time pressures: Managers do not have enough time and often fail to communicate it to all subordinates. Problems also arise in communication when a short circuit, ie when someone who should have received information not received.
10.
Information overload: When a person gets so much information that can not process it all, managers need someone to filter the relevant information.
Any attempt to improve communication will go through changes in people or to change the communication system of the company, or both. Listening can be the best advice for improving communication.

9.3. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION.
The managers when communicating with others can be set conflicts as a result of differences in perception and style.
9.3.1. Differences of perception.
They bring people to have lack of information in some areas due to the issuer or others.
Joseph Luft made a classification according to the information you have and who possesses:
a)
The sand: information for effective communication is known to both sender and to all others. The greater this area the more effective communication. Everyone has to share the same data, feelings and skills.
b)
The blind spot: The issuer is the only one who knows the feelings of others and can not share with them. Decreasing communication difficult area of sand.
c)
The front: The issuer is the only one who knows the information. Your communications with others will be shallow. It reduces the area of sand and communication becomes ineffective.
d) The area known: It occurs when the issuer or other relevant information known to communicate.
-
To improve interpersonal communication:
A) Statement: This is be more open and honest and a person is more vulnerable. The means to reduce the front area and increase the sand.
B) Feedback: Are the others who are getting rid of the blind spot. The issuer must be open. This will cause the sand increases.
In the operation of these two strategies as exposure increases the lower front area and the higher the sand, and as the feedback increases the lower the blind spot area and the greater the area of sand.

9.3.2. Differences in communication style.
One can distinguish four types of direction depending on how managers have to communicate with others. The relationship between the strategies chosen and the resulting address type.
1. Type A: Do not use strategies. He just does not want to increase the area. Tend to be hostile and it is the autocratic leader. Your information zone is very close to unknown area.
2.
Type B: They use the feedback strategy. His subordinates realize that it is repressing his ideas. The facade is the area of information and has a permissive behavior.
3.
Type C: They use the strategy to increase exposure and make the blind spot. Subordinates usually realize that you are not interested in communicating with them, but only in expressing their opinions and ideas. Only interested in their prestige.
4.
Type D: practice the two strategies. They are confident and express their ideas and listen to the opinions of others. The sand area is increased and more effective communication.

9.4. COMMUNICATION IN THE COMPANY.
The DRRHH designed communication system that is often mixed (with formal and informal communications). The formal announcement is set in several ways: downward, upward, horizontal and diagonal.

9.4.1. Communication down.
It is the most abundant in the company. It originates at some point in the company and is pouring down. This can be done formally or informally.
Managers and supervisors communicate to his subordinates:
- The guidelines should continue to enforce its decisions.
- Knowledge about the company.
- Feedback on their performance.
The means to convey this information are varied:
1.
Bulletins newspapers: When big business is very useful. It is a communication that regularly reports on the company.
2. Flyers: They are used to collect permanent information.
3. Circulars: On the occasion of any specific or special event. They are very useful to address rumors or to communicate emergency information.
4. E-mail: It is part of Intranet access may include individual data for each employee, links, ...
5. Audiovisuals: In companies that have offices in other countries may be very useful. Videoconferencing can be used which are advanced but expensive.
6. Meetings: The manager or supervisor may call to his subordinates on a regular basis to exchange information with them or when a problem occurs.
7. Intranet: It is working towards knowledge management. Lets have the files on a centralized server, facilitating decision making and information transmission. The existence of intranet need not be accompanied by the Internet. There are several systems that can optimize the use of Intranet:
- The system that collects B2E company communication with employees, news of global data sales, contracts provided, premium payments, press unions, ...
- The B2C system facilitates communication between the company and its customers by providing information about discounts, promotions, ...
- The B2B system that connects the company with other competing or not.

9.4.2. Upward Communication.
It is important to ensure effective communication both for the suggestions which could provide subordinates to their superiors and by the feedback they can get. It manifests the work of middle management.
It is more complex to achieve a level of efficiency because subordinates are often reluctant to inform their superiors because it is not easy for a supervisor to facilitate the work of the subordinate who wishes to raise any suggestions. Some channels are:
1. Bulletins newspapers: They have a section that allows subordinates to provide input or comments.
2. E-mail: You can raise any concern or complaint.
3. Meetings: When carried out between manager and employee group meetings are called basic level of contact with the base.
4.
Internal process for receiving complaints: The DRRHH establishes a procedure for employees to lodge complaints about their supervisors. Once you have submitted an official complaint from the Department keeps track of it, remaining anonymous.
5.
Program Suggestion: It is a formal method for the generation, evaluation and implementation suggestions. It starts with idea generation by the subject and its presentation to the supervisor, who design a strategy and present it to a committee. Communicates to DRRHH who generated the idea and tracked. After evaluating the idea is communicated to the employee's decision to accept or reject. If the decision is positive, it is recognized and compensated.
6. Mechanism of the rumor: Many employees do more if the rumors that the information in the established channels. The sound affects motivation and satisfaction of subordinates, provides feedback and supervisors and managers have no guidelines to evaluate it properly.
Employees communicate informally with officials of DRRHH them find information they provide feedback. It features:
- Managers can not control it.
- They can travel very quickly.
- You can easily remove.
- Update information.
- You can transcend the limits of the company and return to it altered.
7.
Surveys of attitudes: So systematic ways to gather information from subordinates. Can be done through interviews or anonymous questionnaires. The information can be obtained is very wide and can be used to influence specific aspects. Surveys should only be conducted if, in addition to identifying the problem, the solution DRRHH can channel it. The DRRHH should know what level of commitment we have with the result but frustration is generated.

9.4.3. Other forms of communication.
- Horizontal communication: Is that occurs between two different departments in the same company. It promotes social communication as not knowing what is done in other departments leads to misunderstanding and lack of cooperation.
-
Communication diagonal: Is that relates to a subordinate in a department with the director of another department. The subordinate gains a tempo.

9.5. FOR IMPROVED COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS.
9.5.1. Techniques to improve communication.
The DRRHH should ensure that managers, middle managers, supervisors, improve your messages and must try to understand better what other people are trying to communicate. Some techniques are:
1. Develop empathy: Consists of the ability of a person to get in place of another. The issuer must use a code easier to understand.
2.
Simplification of language use technical language produces confinement.
3.
Listen attentively: Make see that you are willing to understand, avoid distractions, be patient and fair, be moderate to rebut and stop talking to listen. This is useless if it is decided to listen.
4.
Monitoring of the message: Check if the message was received and interpreted in accordance with the wishes of the issuer. Should be made when creating that was not received well.
5. Feedback: It complements the previous one. To facilitate the way for subordinates to provide feedback received messages is the best way for the sender to know if your message was well played.
6. Regular information: Achieving a proper flow of information in quantity and quality. A breakdown in communication not only with more improvement but will have to find out where the problem lies.
9.5.2. Internal Communication Plan (ICP).
The ICP should be coordinated with the HRIS that the company has introduced. For the implantation may be the following:
1.
First step: A productivity ratio. Informed workers are more motivated and identified with their company and the absence of conflict is almost total.
2.
Second step: Identify where the problem lies.
- Conflicts and rivalries between departments and personalities.
- Organizational structure long, too many steps to the worker.
- Excessive bureaucracy that does not allow outside communication rules.
- Inadequate training of middle managers.
- Use of obsolete technology.
- Geographical or functional separation.
3. Third step: Internal communication will be from where you will implement the PCI. To form a team to be determined by the type of messages that will communicate, the channels to be used, timing of implementation of the PCI and evaluating the results.

9.5.3. Program advisory staff.
It is a special type of communication aimed at helping the employee to discuss, explore and solve a problem. Personal problems or stress cause some employees in a state of mind that allows them to be more effective. The advice should be to solve problems in business but the adviser must not come into the private sphere. Reports are confidential and you will have access only those associated with the solution of it.
The characteristics of the counseling staff include:
- It is an act of communication.
- Help employees to solve their labor problems.
- Helping employees cope with their emotional problems.
- Helps reduce depersonalization.
- It's confidential.
There are 3 types of counseling depending on the degree of suggestions that the consultant brings:
1. Consultancy rules: It consists in listening to employee problems, decide together what should be done and indirectly inform what action is optimal.
2.
Consultancy participatory: Establish an exchange between the employee and the consultant so that together they can find the solution. The ability of the counselor is essential as their role is to show the employee another point of view.
3.
Consultancy receptive: it consists in listening to the employee should be encouraged to examine the problem and find the right solution.


ITEM 10: MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION.

10.1. CONCEPTS.
Motivation is an internal state that leads us to do something that gives us some satisfaction. The motivation for a manager who wants to get some of their workers is a means, but for employees helps them meet their needs. Employees who are motivated tend to want to go to work, take part in working groups, cooperate, try to help their colleagues, work with gusto and have personal goals.
A low yields may be due to low motivation, a shortage of resources, lack of resources or skills or clumsiness of the supervisor.

10.2. THE PROCESS OF MOTIVATION.
The motivation emerges when are the needs (shortages experienced by a person at a particular time). This need drives him to do something to relieve the discomfort. Finally reached that allowed it to cover its needs and the discomfort disappears. The employee may need to carry out several alternative or simultaneous actions to achieve the goals that allow you to meet your needs.

10.3. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION.
Existing theories of motivation try to explain human behavior in the grounds, sometimes analyzing the reasons (content theories) and others exploring ways in which motivation is produced (process theories).

10.3.1. Theories of content.
They try to identify what is inside of an individual, or the work environment that stimulates and maintains a particular behavior. The DRRHH can not choose one of them but must use them to understand the motives that may have employees to do what they do and influence them. The DRRHH shall:
1. determine what caused the performance needs.
2. Offer rewards to help meet those needs.
3. Knowing when to offer the reward.
4. Be sure that the needs change.
The theories which attempt to define the needs that motivate people are:
Theory of hierarchy of needs Maslow. To explain the motivation must meet two basic premises:
1. Only influence behavior unmet needs.
2. The needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance:
- Lower requirement: physiological, safety and social.
- Needs higher: esteem and self-actualization.
• The
physiological needs are the basic body as food, water, shelter, sex, ... are the ones who dominate when they are dissatisfied, the individual can not find others to replace them. The company can collaborate through a fair wage and providing pleasant conditions at work.
• The
appear when security needs are met and physiological relate to protection against physical damage, pain, ... The organization helps to meet them by providing security and fringe benefits.
Social
needs arise once they have met the safety and reflect the social characteristic of individuals in the company (participation in groups) and personal relationships. The company contributes to opportunities for socializing and the feeling of belonging.
The needs of esteem appear when you meet the social and produce a sense of prestige, respect for others and self-esteem. The company provides liability and public recognition.
• The
needs of self-grouped the desire to become everything one is capable of becoming, to be effective in everything you do. In the company are covered if given the chance to face new challenges and opportunities.
- The criticism of this theory is exposed as universally accepted as individuals in different countries or cultures have different hierarchy of needs.
- Another criticism is that the overlap needs not satisfied following the regimen established.
- This criticism is based on static and individuals establish their hierarchy of preferences based on many factors. People often compare their level of satisfaction and that of others.
Do not use the theory to predict the actions of individuals but to understand the behavior of people in the company.
ERG Theory Alderfer
Alderfer establishes a hierarchy of needs: Existence, Membership and Growth.
The needs include physiological existence and security, the membership would match the socialization and the growth would be and self esteem.
Alderfer states that if a person is frustrated aspirations of higher rank, the lower range will reappear as the main motivating force.
It provides the DRRHH a valuable tool when it comes to motivating and states that people adopt a behavior that will satisfy some of their needs. It is more flexible than those of Maslow since it establishes a strict hierarchy of needs satisfaction.
Two Factor Theory Herzberg
It differentiates between maintenance factors and motivation.
The
maintenance factors are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction. Cause more dissatisfaction when they are not that motivated.
They are known by conditions extrinsic (outside the context of post) or hygiene factors include salary, job security, working conditions, prestige, procedures and company policies, quality of supervision and quality of interpersonal relationships.
The so-called intrinsic motivators (as part of work) if not present do not cause great dissatisfaction and are the achievements and recognition for work well done, responsibility, advancement, the possibility of personal development, the work itself .
- The criticism of this theory refers to the point of departure from it and which bases its findings on a survey of 200 accountants and engineers. This sample is too limited to draw conclusions valid for other groups.
- Another criticism was that it oversimplified the nature of job satisfaction and how easily the company can contribute to it.
Theory of learned needs McClelland
The motivation is closely related to learning concepts and establishes 3 that are learned needs of achievement, affiliation and power.
When a need is very strong, its effect is to encourage to satisfy the need. These needs can be learned through training courses.
The need for achievement (n Log) is the need to do well and excel.
The need for affiliation (n Afi) is the necessity of getting along with people in the environment, positive relationships and no tension and confrontation.
The need for power (No Pod) is the need to exercise control or influence others.
It learns an n Log elevated Thematic Apperception Test (PPT) which offer some drawings asking them to write a story about them. If you have a high log n will intervene in history achievement factors. It is based on that if you ask something concrete will be difficult to answer with precision while doing so indirectly their fantasies and aspirations are more clear.
It is a work of DRRHH will bring their experience and professional advice to managers.
The profile of people with high log n is preferred targets are modest and realistic, preferring to choose goals that will achieve wishing to obtain immediate feedback on their accomplishments and like to have responsibilities.
What managers can do to influence the motivation is:
1. Providing employees with feedback on the outcome of the work.
2. Provide the widest possible publicity to the achievements to become models.
3. Help them improve their own image.
4. Give them all the information related to work.
- The criticism refers to the use of the PPT to determine the three needs as it is more an art than a scientific method.
- Another criticism has to do with that you can buy a log n, when the motives appear in childhood and is difficult to alter them at maturity.
10.3.2. Theories of process.
The process theories attempt to explain how motivation occurs and what can be done to influence it and are strengthening and expectations.
To understand is necessary to stop learning, understood as a fundamental process in business since most of the behaviors are learned.
Learning need to understand basic concepts:
1. The impetus: A condition that encourages people to do something. There are inherent primary drives (thirst) and secondary that are learned.
2.
The stimulation: is the signal that generates one or more answers. Sometimes you have a clear interpretation but not others.
3.
The answer: It is the result of stimulation and can be oral, written manuals or a particular attitude.
4. Enhancer: An event that increases or maintains the intensity of the response.
The DRRHH advises managers to discover what motivates employees and thereby help them to measure performance and monitor absenteeism. The obligation of managers is to create an environment which is conducive to motivation.
Reinforcement theory
The atmosphere is the main cause of a behavior. Operant conditioning has to do with learning that occurs as a result of behavior. The term used is the behavior modification in the organization (MCO) which designates the systematic practice of reinforcing desirable behavior and not reinforce or punish undesirable.
We speak of
positive reinforcement when they get to increase the intensity of the response but can not require contingencies for establishing a direct relationship being positive reinforcement and behavior.
Negative
reinforcement induces a response when it's over negative reinforcement.
The
penalty is a booster that sends the message that nothing is done. It is quite used to sanction in situations where price is not sanctioning outweigh the benefits. Before using the penalty must try other ways since the penalty mark permanently and not conducive to good relationships which is detrimental to company performance and self-esteem of the worker.
In situations where there is no positive reinforcement, the behavior that gave an answer is phased out is called extinction of reinforcement.
- The criticism is considered that the reinforcement is no less or bribery since employees act in a certain way for fear of punishment or the reward.
- Another criticism is that employees can become overly dependent enhancers and response will not occur unless it is promised to the reinforcer.
Expectancy theory
Exposed by Victor Vroom defines motivation as a process that governs the choice between various forms of voluntary activity.
Assesses the magnitude and direction of all forces motivating.
The underlying principles are:
1. The performance (D) is a multiplicative function of motivation (M) and capacity (C) defined as the potential of individuals to perform work. D = M x C.
2. The motivation is a multiplicative function of the valence for each outcome of first level (V1) and expectations (E) perceived that a certain behavior correspond certain result of the first level. M = V1 x E.
Valence is the intensity of preference of a person for a particular result. A valence is positive when and negative when prefer is avoided.
The results of the first level are associated with the performance and the second level are the rewards or punishments that produce world class results.
Understands the expectations theory by the perception of subjective probability that a certain behavior appropriate to a certain result.
The minimum value of the expectations is ceo and the maximum is one that represents the certainty that after a behavior will produce a result.
The second principle is that if expectations are low, there will be little motivation.
3. The valence is associated with several world class results (V1) is a multiplicative function of the sum of the valences associated with the results of second level (V2) and instrumentation (I) having obtained the result of first level to obtain each of the second-level results. V1 = V2 x I.
If managers know this process will influence her motivation through:
• Identify second-level results so important to employees. The DRRHH should be able to establish a flexible incentive program.
• Establish a relationship between the desired second-level outcomes and performance goals of the company.
If employees observe a relationship between goals, performance and desired outcomes of second level work harder because the good performance they will get the results they want.
- The criticism focuses on the assumption that the employees performed the motivation process consciously, but in fact allocated unconsciously.
- Another criticism is that does not specify which results are relevant to an individual or situation which makes research not confront reality.
Locke, for whom the motivation and performance increase when people ask objectives in a participatory manner, or when these goals are accepted and there is a degree of control over their coverage or execution.
Laborde discusses identity. Redirect environmental conditions to a new situation that the individual can control increase your sense of identity and motivation.
10.4. PORTER AND LAWLER MODEL.
Notes the relationship between performance, satisfaction and rewards, stressing the importance of having employees who possess the appropriate skills.
The rewards should be distributed equitably to what is necessary to measure performance. If employees fail to see that justice in the distribution of rewards, think that it's not worth trying.
Employees have expectations of the outcome to be a determined effort at work. They are the spark of motivation. Through the hard work pays a yield. If there is equity in the allocation of rewards, you get satisfaction for their efforts. Develops new expectations for future behavior. In the effort will involve the employee's capabilities as their perception of the role. The satisfaction you get may be intrinsic (self-actualization) and extrinsic (reward). The DRRHH must review the needs of employees so that there is no extinction of motivation.

10.5. MOTIVATION IN PRACTICE.
10.5.1. Enrichment of work.
The enrichment programs are interesting when the work consists mechanical or routine tasks.
William Paul distinguishes between job enlargement and job enrichment. The expansion makes the work contains more tasks while enrichment provides the opportunity to develop and reach maturity in their work.
Enrich the redesign work is so is made deeper and enjoy the responsibility, challenge and achievement that meets the needs of employees' psychological growth.
Hackman's model
Sets the size of the enrichment plants at work:
1. Variety: That the employees perform different tasks with different procedures and different equipment.
2. Task identity: The worker made a full share of work. Would be detrimental to the specialty.
3. Meaning of the task: recognition that work for other people.
4. Autonomy: The control that the employee can exercise over their duties.
5. Feedback: Be informed of the quality of performance.
Not all employees can benefit from enrichment work well because the position does not allow it or because they do not want.
The DRRHH advise managers and supervisors so that employees can access further work through:
- Allow employees to schedule their work.
- That the employee be responsible for their actions and to exercise some control.
- Design the job so that they have different tasks that allow the employee to learn and implement other skills.
- Encourage on the job.
- Provide a direct and rapid assessment of its performance.
The positions will also have to change for pe delegate. The company will benefit, employees will have new expectations in their efforts lead to performance and obtain rewards that meet your needs.

10.5.2. Motivation through salary.
Although most theories provide the money as a motivating factor, many companies fail to pay their employees interact with the performance and the consequences can be absenteeism, job rotation, dissatisfaction, desire to quit the company, ...
There would be a distinction between motivation leadership and motivation of other employees.
For management positions pay is often related to the performance of the company. In other countries there are other incentives such as pension plans, health care, wages in kind (cars, housing, ...), so-called bonus (incentives for results) and stock options (options on shares of the company).
The problem is that most of these incentives do not have the characteristic of motivation but are part of the starting salary.


















UNIT 11: USING THE POWER TO IMPROVE RELATIONS AND THE WORK ENVIRONMENT.

11.1 THE POWER IN THE ORGANIZATION.

11.1.1. Power and Authority.
Power is domination, empire, power and jurisdiction that you have to execute a command or something, is the ability to get things done as you want.
Authority is the character or the representation of a person's employment, credit or birth, has to do with the role of the individual.
Within the company the authority is the formal power of one person for the position. The properties are attributable to the authority:
1. It is inseparable from the position of a person. It has nothing to do with personal characteristics.
2. It is accepted by subordinates.
3. In the hierarchy of the company the authority is used up and down.
In business the conflict occurs when there is no correspondence between the needs of individuals.
Power can be used for dark or fairly and ethically. In business every interaction between members involves the exercise of power.
Some individuals
need to feel the need for power may have come with such inappropriate behavior to get it, but power can be sought and used responsibly.
David McClelland discussed the need to be called by the No Pod defined as the desire to impact others. This impact can be done in 3 ways:
1. Through direct actions help or advice.
2. Through actions that provoke emotions.
3. Taking care to maintain a certain prestige.
The characteristics of people who have a high level of n Pod are:
1. They are competitive and dynamic.
2. They show interest in acquiring status symbols.
3. They prefer action.
4. They belong to several groups.
The findings relate power with effective managers are:
1. Have a high level of n Pod.
2. Use power appropriately.
3. When acting with subordinates exert a participatory style.
4. They show no interest in developing close relationships with other members.
Both the power and authority can be lost for various reasons. When a manager or supervisor exercises power inappropriately may lose authority.
Power may be lost by acting improperly. Managers who impose overly rigid rules and restrictions are unnecessary use of power and authority unravels.

11.1.2. The policy approach of power.
Power is analyzed from a political perspective according to 5 basic propositions:
1. Companies are comprised of individuals representing various interest groups at different hierarchical levels grouped by department and professionals as well as in subgroups such as gender and ethnicity.
2. Some of the differences between individuals or groups can change while others remain unchanged or are only slowly as are the values, beliefs, preferences and perceptions of reality.
3. It requires the allocation of scarce resources, because for someone to gain something needs to be removed to another.
4. Because conflicts occur, the instrument being able to solve them.
5. Goals and business decisions are the result of bargaining and competition that occurs among members.
When power is highly concentrated the company is subject to strict regulations and when the power is diffuse conflict and are power games.
The goals of the company did not arise by mandate but through a process of negotiation and interaction between components thereof. For the directors or managers may find it very interesting to know the political perspective of power because they will have more power than others but they have all the power. The negotiation is necessary in the interests of a more fruitful coexistence.

11.1.3. The focus of human resources.
The concept of empowerment reflects the limits of power and its difficulties in the exercise of authority. HR approaches have shown ways to influence that lend themselves to collaboration and improve relationships.
Sharing power would help improve relations and creating the necessary climate of cooperation but requires a gradual change of culture, not impose it.
Managers need to be convinced of the need to share power with their subordinates, should show more openness with those with whom they will share power, creating a climate of trust and must be improved communication channels. The authority is a mechanism unidirectional (one commands and obey) that leaves little room for openness.


The aspects that must hold individuals or groups to be powerful are:
1. Positions of power (authority): The position is associated with a certain amount of formal power, the higher is in the hierarchy of authority more power you have.
2.
Control of rewards: The possibility of awarding a prize makes people more powerful. The power of rewards is often used as backup power granted by the authority. Subordinates may be interested in responding to commands or prompts.
3.
Coercive power: The ability to inflict some sort of penalty or reprisal. Subordinates obey out of fear of punishment.
4.
Information and Experience: The more information and / or experience you have, the greater its ability to solve problems and have greater power. Information is a factor which empowers it is key to making decisions.
5.
Building partnerships: People who can establish friendly relations are easier to get to do what they want.
6. Charisma: some people have certain personal characteristics that increase the power they have.
Authority control of rewards and coercion fall into the category of powers granted by the company and the experience and information, building partnerships and charisma belongs to the category of personal power.
A manager must not rely only on its authority and that if she does most probably end up losing its own power and can be overcome by individuals or groups who exercise power without authority.

11.1.4. The power of bottom up.
The authority has in companies with a vertical structure that flows from top to bottom. A person exercising powers up but no authority has power.
In the case of the rising power has designated two sources of influence: persuasion and manipulation manipulative.
In
manipulative persuasion is trying to convince a superior of something hiding the real aim sought.
Manipulation concealed in both the purpose and intent.
11.1.5. The power of the departments.
Some department managers have more power than others precisely in that department and not in another.
Hickson drafted the strategic contingency theory. According to this theory is a strategic contingency event or activity that are definitive for achieving the goals of the company. Gets two conclusions:
1. The two contingencies that affect the power of a department are the uncertainty and importance.
2. A department will have much more power the better cope with uncertainty and the more imperative it for the company.
To act on the uncertainty the company have 3 ways:
1. Prevention: Reducing the probability that before the department suffers some unforeseen consequences.
2. Information: Increase information will also reduce the risk of unforeseen events that may arise.
3. Absorption: After presenting the unexpected, how quickly absorb and incorporate the department will make the unexpected side effect of the decrease.
The more irreplaceable or more essential is the greater the dependency department that other departments have with respect to this and greater power.

11.2. RELATIONSHIPS IN THE ORGANIZATION.
People who are part of a company are personal and social activities along with the personality of each individual can be transferred to within the company. Relationships between employees can be facilitated or deteriorated as a result of politics.
Just as the power is used to eliminate conflicts in business, good relationships help to ensure that these conflicts arise. Managers are required to seek greater effectiveness in the enterprise by removing barriers that inhibit the full participation of the employee. The aim is twofold:
1. creating an organizational climate in which the employee can develop their full capacities.
2. Suit the circumstances that allow the employee to contribute creatively to the objectives of the company.
Managers face a range of measures affecting the business climate as the protection, care workers and quality of life at work or communication.

11.2.1. Interpersonal relationships.
The manager has among its missions the responsibility to create a favorable climate of relations. Sometimes, the conflict appears and you need your intervention may reach the penalty. When an employee has a conflict with another establishes a model of defensive behavior which we call Model I is based on:
1. Assume that the problem was caused by someone else.
2. Develop a diagnosis and a unilateral solution.
3. Since it is the one causing the problem, it is he who must change. If you do not see the facts as one sees them, move to direct criticism telling the other what to do to change or use the indirect influence with comments to others.
4. If the other person refuses or is put on the defensive is confirmed that the other is causing the problem.
5. Responding to the resistance by rejecting the other person.
You get not guilty but is considered likely that the problem is resolved and that everyone involved does badly.
Argyris and Schon proposed an alternative model of behavior which we call Model II which allows for interpersonal effectiveness and is based on the belief that the approaches of other people are honest. Stimulates to put yourself in the other person through the information she will forward on their vision of the problem. The steps to take for this model are:
1. Emphasize common goals, achieve set objectives which are common is very effective.
2. Communicate openly with the other person's assumptions about his intentions may have been made.
3. exploration of the thoughts of the other person. Should be asked about their views, feelings or opinions about the problem.
It requires an open and flexible behavior can not be achieved easily, but managers "can not afford the luxury of practicing Model I, addressing the problems indirectly or attacking others, but must address them directly.
Understanding the problems of subordinates and the ability to maintain cordial relationships are fluid and issues that managers should cultivate more.

11.2.2. The collective relations.
One group consists of a set of employees who join together to achieve certain goals. Sometimes the goal is to work and other social.
There are reasons why managers should care about the groups:
1. The formation of groups within organizations is inevitable. Sometimes managers are those who enhance their training and other spontaneously arise among employees.
2. Groups influence the behavior and the behavior of its members.
3. They can produce consequences as managers must avoid the negative consequences.
Groups can be divided into two categories:
A)
Informal groups: Arise naturally and its features are:
- They are created spontaneously.
- Its members are influenced by the personality and skills.
- They use formal and informal communication.
- The leader emerges from the components.
- They exercise control through social sanctions.
Within the informal groups are:
1. The interest groups are formed when people organize themselves moved by a particular matter of concern to all its components.
2.
Friendship groups: appearing when employees join depending on certain characteristics, hobbies or take coffee together. Still relate outside the company.
B)
formal groups: Most groups are formal and have their reason for being in the position of its components within the company (departments). Its features are:
- They are created by initiative of the Directorate.
- Its members are influenced by relations of authority.
- Communication is done through formal channels.
- The group's leadership is exercised by someone designated by the Management.
- The control is exercised through sanctions or rewards.
Within the formal groups are:
1. The command groups: They are made by subordinates who report directly to their supervisor. They are defined in the organization and their number increases as extending the powers of head of department.
2.
A working group: The way for carrying out or specific task. Can be formed by members of the same department or different departments.
Work requires a learning group that goes from the trust until the development of teamwork skills. The best performance is obtained when the group reaches maturity.
The 4-phase model identifies the stages through which passes the group:
1. First stage: It is marked by uncertainty about their own abilities and fear to compete with others. Prepare to be accepting each other.
2.
Second phase: The group focuses on making decisions and solving problems giving their ideas openly.
3.
Third phase: Characterized by the maturity and motivation. The group is cohesive and knows it is better to cooperate than compete.
4.
Fourth phase: They're organized and the group is able to exercise control when one of the components does not accept the rules.
These do not have a specific duration or are equal for all groups and managers must have the advice of DRRHH.
Characteristics of the working group
1. Papers from the group: A role is formed by conduct that shows a person in a social context. As the group evolves its components are developing a series of expected behaviors. If you are the desired ones the group will define its structure. If the roles do not overlap with the group structure is teetering and conflicts appear.
The group leader is he who must find the skills and abilities of each component to ascertain the adequacy of the role of each one of them.
The papers do not relate exclusively to matters related to the task but also makes the personality development of a particular role.
One component of the group may play an initiator, facilitator or egocentric. The result of their initiative will be different depending on your personality.
2. Objectives: There are two types, those that managers set for the group and the group itself is fixed.
3. Leadership: The leader's role is spontaneous when the group is informal, but when the formal leader is imposed by management. Team members recognized leader in a number of qualities:
- It has attributes that the members recognized as important to meet their needs and development of the group.
- The leader assumes the values of the group and is representative of them.
- Receive interesting information for the group and they were transferred.
4. Position: The prestige that an individual has within the group. Is achieved by the degree of authority or power you have. In the groups a hierarchy, which may come from the leadership, seniority or skills.
5.
Setting standards: Are attitudes, opinions, behaviors or feelings that guide behavior. In setting standards groups to enhance the effectiveness of the group. Some arise spontaneously, but others must be determined. It may be that the altered any of the group need to modify some of the rules.
6. Cohesion is the attraction of individuals into the group and it will depend on performance. The higher the degree of unity the greater the satisfaction of its members and the greater the yield. Factors affecting the cohesion of the group are:
- Size: To enable all members to communicate with each group size must not be too big. It influences some individuals to escape from doing their job.
- Unit members to the group's work: If the group meets their essential needs will be the same. Your unit will be greater the more attractive will be the group.
-
Agreement on goals: When the members do not agree on the objectives stresses occur which must be solved. Having established the objectives, losers can become frustrated. Work of the leader is trying to harmonize the objectives.
- Achievement of goals: When the group reaches the objectives are proud. The targets set by the company must be consistent with those set by the group.
-
Position of the group: The different groups have different ranks in the hierarchy, competing to occupy a higher position. The higher is the position the greater the desire to become part of it.
The level of the position is related to the degree of autonomy, performance, the skill of its members ...
The position is inversely related to the level of supervision to which he is subjected.
-
Attitude of managers: A demanding attitude on the part of managers that the group tends to be more united. If the group was cohesive and s may not notice the external pressure.
Decision making in groups
The meetings often argued that they are not productive because they are a mere formality. To avoid frustration and sense of loss of time will have to point out some guidelines:
1. Visiting a DRRHH to enlist their cooperation in the approach the group and setting its standards.
2. Assign tasks to specific group or team setting limits.
3. Consider the ideal size of computer depending on the job in hand.
4. Try that staff choose to group participants.
5. Provide the training group and means they need.
6. to provide expert advice group.
Advantages and disadvantages of groups
Among the advantages is the possibility of using a greater amount of information. In making the group responsible decision making, be individually liable for their members, resulting in increased motivation.
The disadvantages arising from their bad reputation for poor quality decisions, when they prefer to give a solution that allows them to win but not the best. Dependence on the leader is used to attack groups.
It is not possible to know in advance whether it is better to work in groups or individually but will be assessed in each case the most appropriate for the goals of the company.
Conflict in groups
Conflicts arise when there is a difference between the goals, ideas or emotions of individuals. Occur early in terms of roles, schedules, objectives, ...
A collaboration with DRRHH should minimize these conflicts and goal-oriented. They are difficult to solve those who have to do with the personality of the group.
Conflicts between groups
Could affect the company's goals. This occurs when the conflicting groups are interrelated. They may look like games of power that forces managers to take action. The reasons why you may see are:
1. Scarcity of resources: The competition for the allocation of resources is often detrimental to efficiency.
2. Failures in the communication can arise spontaneously or be provoked.
The groups use a unique language that allows the entry of others. Be unable to provide wrong information unintentionally or on purpose.
3. Differences of interests: The objectives of a group may conflict with those of another. Act to redirect management objectives.
4. Differences in attitudes Groups can take different positions to the same problem. Conflict may arise when a group is considered better and his attitude thwarts collaboration between groups.
The DRRHH must identify the problem, and intervene to advise the leader.
Strategies in conflict resolution
A) Indirect Strategies: The DRRHH has not intervened yet. The managers let the groups resolve their conflicts without direct intervention.
1. Avoidance: As if by not giving importance to the conflict, it did not matter. In the medium term is the worst possible and that ignoring a problem does not imply that there is. Problems do not resolve themselves.
2. Negotiation: Trying to have the groups meet and resolve their conflicts giving everyone in their positions to gain something in return.
3.
Statement by the leader: It advises the leaders of each group to persuade the components of certain positions that could be alternatives.
B)
direct strategies: In some cases it requires the direct intervention of the DRRHH, in a managerial or both.
1. Intimidation: It is frequently used. Is to require that the problem is resolved in a day under threat of dissolution of both groups.
2.
Replacement: If the dispute has arisen as interpersonal differences is to replace people who have caused. The problem may be that the person causing or has a dominant position in the case of the leader and it may happen that the conflict remains and has been forced to abandon good people.
3.
Goals joint: It consists in creating joint goals of the warring groups, who forget the past conflicts and prepare to achieve those goals. The goal is set by management or by DRRHH.
Committees
They refer more to the form that the purpose for which they arise. It is a group where members cooperate to achieve a goal. A committee is producing a little creative competition, letting time pass without taking any decision of importance. When a committee gets to have success is because its chairman and members develop standards that make work easier.
Standards Committee
1. Obtain advice from DRRHH before forming the group.
2. Make an offer open to anyone who wants to join.
3. Set a meeting schedule or perform them only when necessary.
4. Establish the overall purpose and specific objectives.
5. They should join those who can make some contribution.
6. That the members have the appropriate documentation before the meeting.
7. That room will have the elements necessary materials.
8. That the members have the expert advice they need.
9. Be punctual when starting and ending the meeting.
The committee chairman
The President shall be the person who directs the committee, the rules will leave his initiative and his ability to lead the group will determine the success or failure.
A president is not usually dominant accepted by the group but if you can stand to lose respect. You must have an open mind, be flexible to listen to all members who must give the possibility to express themselves and have to organize activities so that everyone can participate.
Quality circles
It consists of a group of people who join voluntarily and regularly to discuss quality control and techniques that can improve productivity. It seeks to identify and resolve problems related to these tasks.
As regards the composition of members in an organization relate to a task group or command.
As the process is straightforward and gives the following:
1. Employees and supervisors identify the problem and propose a solution.
2. The directors reviewed the settlement and carried out.
3. It implements the solution.
4. Verify the effectiveness of the solution.
The
features are:
1. The groups are not very numerous (4 to 15 people).
2. The components are and the same workspace.
3. The leader is usually the supervisor of the area.
4. Participation is voluntary.
5. They meet for a half and an hour to receive remuneration for it.
6. Receive training in techniques for solving problems.
7. They perform a selection of problems.
8. While the members still wanting to meet the CC there.
Often, after the enthusiasm and commitment, performance will decline. Managers must ensure that these feelings take root in the culture for that starting position can be maintained.
One problem is that they are becoming less regular meetings, the CC becomes less resolving holding only for prestige.
They are not solving all the problems but can solve some long that takes into account the responsiveness of employees, the cost of maintaining them, the goals and the preparation of the members.

11.3. RELATIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE AT WORK.
Shares of DRRHH should be aimed at improving the living:
1. The job design that allows a high level of satisfaction.
2. The development of programs that offer opportunities for individuals.
3. The selection of skilled and talented.
4. The establishment of objective standards, reliable and fair performance.
5. Training to enable staff to develop their full potential.
6. The performance evaluation and appropriate encouragement.
7. Effective communication.

11.3.1. Discipline.
Constitutes an administrative action to encourage and ensure compliance. Preventing this requires that employees know the rules and regulations and are adopted by consensus. Employees must know the penalties in each case.
Disciplinary offenses listed in the Collective Agreement and if not so published a manual or regulations as the pick.
The disciplinary process is progressive: start with a verbal warning and may end with dismissal. The DRRHH can act as an intermediary.
Operating Systems discipline
1. Hierarchical: The supervisor manages the discipline and allows you to be judge and jury. Leave the employee helpless against arbitrary and unfair conduct.
2. Equal: To prevent abuse formed a disciplinary committee formed by some managers and employees.
3. Ombudsmen: Sometimes the company or the employee want the conflict is resolved by a mediator. Can be used when there is a disciplinary committee and the employee believes that the treatment given by the supervisor is not fair.
Types of discipline
1. Preventive Discipline: Actions to encourage employees to comply with the rules and procedures to prevent deviations. Self-discipline is preferred. In some companies the rules are approved by a vote which makes compliance is the maximum.
2. Corrective Discipline: Measures to be involved if there is a deviation from some norm. The purpose is:
- To prevent the occurrence of further deviations.
- Discourage other employees in the implementation of such actions.
- Maintain compliance.
The rule provides that the hot iron with a hot iron to remove the hand action is immediate. It can apply to the disciplinary:
- All staff should know the rules and sanctions.
- The discipline that will immediately increase its effectiveness.
- Disciplinary action can not be different depending on who commits the offense.
Sanctions should be provided in private and respect the feelings.
Corrective action means, according to the rule has been violated, a penalty of some kind. It can be a verbal warning or a suspension without pay.
The penalty has rejected the concept of punishment and has taken positive reinforcement body-negative-positive. The notion of punishment creates undesirable side effects such as absenteeism, apathy or fear work supervisor.
Disciplinary measures should be adapted to existing laws and are not acceptable:
- Those who punished for not accepting work that carry a risk to their mental or physical integrity.
- Those that are rooted in ethnicity, sex, religion, ... employees.
- Those who put obstacles to trade union activities.
- Those who punished for refusing to perform illegal acts.
Disciplinary action may result in legal disputes such as dismissal. It is desirable that DRRHH keep disciplinary records.
3. Progressive Discipline: Sanctions are becoming more severe as the mistakes are repeated. Allows employees to correct their behavior before they reach more severe measures. After one time with no other fault should be removed from his file warnings has been removed because of the difficulty but very serious offenses like assault, robbery, ... must be tackled immediately and not be subject to progressive discipline.
It is possible that the effect of personal advice to be used in conjunction with progressive discipline. Since the consultant's focus is on the employee when a discipline problem arises we will try to guide you towards a more acceptable behavior instead of applying the penalty.

11.3.2. Dialogue and collaboration with unions.
The unions will address the extent to which employees disagrees with actions taken by management or when the treatment s not adequate. The company and unions are obliged to seek common goals, and that confrontation harms both.
The DRRHH design a program of cooperation and dialogue with the unions. If you have not previously established, the time conflict is not the best to do so.
Promoting dialogue
1. Consult with union leaders earlier measures that will affect personnel to avoid possible reactions. The actions that must be consulted with the unions are going to affect workers.
2.
Show me an honest interest in the problems of employees acting quickly when a conflict exists by enforcement disciplinary Collective Agreement, even if there are aspects that do not favor the company, giving a humane and honest people with which is negotiated.
3.
Establish training programs to communicate the terms of the Collective Agreement, efforts to improve different areas, changes in policies or objectives set by management.
4.
Setting up committees of company-union joint study to develop solutions to specific problems.
Is DRRHH which must assume responsibility to take appropriate action to improve relations with union representatives with the goal of justice and the welfare of employees, respect and ethics.
Negotiation
The negotiation may be necessary to renew the collective agreement or to produce it. The phases of negotiation are:
1. Preparation: The Convention sets out the rights and obligations of the parties and shall remain in force for a specified period of time. It is necessary to adequately prepare the aspects that will look, analyzing factors such as international economic situation and national economic conditions, labor market and the evolution of the company. Be defined in the agreements reached at other companies. A plan that will include negotiating the demands of the representatives of employees and the company counteroffers. It is advisable that the presence of a labor law expert and one in wages and salaries.
2. Negotiation: They meet the representatives of the company and union to start negotiations. What is needed in several meetings and negotiations will include all aspects relating to the topic at hand. It should begin with items m
ás singles and the process should be conducted in private and some offers may be misinterpreted. If there comes a time when you can not go into a complicated one can be used to show the agreement reached in the most simple. Other times it may be appropriate to defer the item and subsequently retake a useful strategy to advance the consultation with management, so it is desirable that the negotiating team is not no manager.
Reach agreement soon often results in suspicion and distrust unions and abide by the legislation is successful. It is desirable to keep the equity (that each party wins something).
3. Application: Upon completion of negotiations to approve the settlement with the ratification of Director General, or the Steering Committee and union representatives. Its ratification involves the operation from a date that must be contained in the agreement. In small companies the employees shall be subject to the agreement that has ruled the industry. Can be made other arrangements outside the Convention while respecting the law.

11.3.3. The collective agreement.
Define the rights and obligations of the company and employees. The terms depend on what the parties involved in its drafting determined.
This should include wage levels are set by category, age and conditions for retirement, holidays, leave, promotion policies, the company's rights and disciplinary action or regulation.
The Convention will be as lengthy and detailed as the parties seek arbitration by setting which will examine the parties.
There are two types of collective agreement: the company and the industry will have to comply with the law not being necessary the same headings.
Causes of differences on the Convention
Before coming to denounce the Convention can be produced complaints from employees and may exert its action DRRHH mediator in the conflict.
1. Complaints legitimate: When there is a reasonable presumption that the Convention has been violated. It may be a misunderstanding or bad faith.
2.
Complaints imaginary character: When employees believe the company is failing. Sometimes this is that the committee has not adequately explained any provision.
3.
Complaints of a political nature: There are other reasons as the expiration of the Agreement or union elections and are harder to solve than others.
It may happen that you want to go to arbitration and the arbitrator must be a person with moral standing and professional accepted by the company and the committee.

11.3.4. Quality of work environment.
It encompasses a series of practices and actions that improve the business environment. The quality of what surrounds the work is determined by the manner in which employees judge their activity in the company. If employees can play an active role in decisions that feel more part of the company when they are imposed. Werther and Davis call this phase thestage of industrial democracy.
The systematic efforts to achieve a higher quality of work life are to share power, job enrichment, the establishment of quality circles, teamwork, improving relationships and communication, advice from the Department of HR, fair and equitable remuneration, training commensurate ... The first people must be convinced that improving the quality of work is beneficial are the managers.
Despite the advantages there are obstacles that can make the project unfeasible. It is feared the effect that changes can occur and this causes resistance to change. Therefore the DRRHH must explain the need for change and the outcomes expected.
By employees and unions fear that can come only benefit management. If the job climate is good will be less distrust and easy to accept the changes is greater. Managers are reluctant to adopt different techniques of disruptions in the production process.
ITEM 12: AUDIT OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.

12.1. CONCEPT AND TYPES OF AUDIT.
It is a mechanism or tool to control and verification through observation of the object to be audited. It means looking at the past but also the present and serve to support and help for the future. It seeks only to make a control but also suggest solutions to the problems identified.
The most widespread audit auditing few.
Has ceased to apply solely to the economic and financial aspects and has spread to other areas that has generated the development of other types of audits.
Types of audit
- Depending on the professional status of the person performing the audit:
1.
Internal audits: Made by employees of the organization.
2.
External audits: Made by independent professionals.
3.
The government audits: audit activity include all government offices, agencies and public institutions.
- Depending on the object of it (is what we want):
1.
Financial audit: Is the traditional audit. It focuses on the certification of the accounting information and financial statements. His research area is accounting and administrative control.
2.
Operational Audit: The audit of all functions and operations. It consists of the audit of operational controls, the management audit, the audit strategy and social auditing. His research is focusing on internal control reliability of the information is not accounting.
3. Audit Integrated: Integrates all aspects of company management. It has two objectives: First, verify the security of monetary operations and reliability of accounting and financial information, and second, to prove that the management and information systems and management methods ensure optimization of resources.
The type of audit that can accommodate the HR is the social audit.
At the operational or operational audit includes the audit and the administrative and management review, procedures and internal control systems. Includes many non-financial areas, including staff.
Be the kind of audit can be done from outside the company by outside professionals, or from within the internal auditors.
Appears separate financial audit (based on the analysis of the financial statements) of non-financial audit, in charge of other aspects that are not reflected in a balance, where we can focus the HR Audit.



12.2. AUDIT CONCEPT OF DIRECTIONS OF HR.
Can be defined as an objective examination, thorough and logically founded, objectives, policies, systems, control, application of resources and structure of the company that is responsible for accountability of these resources.
Should lead to a vision system and control to inform management efficiency and effectiveness of HR programs and activities.
The Audit DRRHH is not collecting data but analyzes the data to highlight what is right and what to enhance and noted that it departs from the objectives and proposed actions to improve.

12.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE AUDIT DRRHH.
What interests us is how to analyze is being managed for maximum efficiency always.
It will consider whether the audit is useful and necessary for demonstrating DRRHH instruments that can be used, the sources where to obtain data and how to perform this process.
The main difficulty is to measure something that is basically qualitative. An additional problem is to audit the DRRHH the image of this function has the rest of the company.

12.4. JUSTIFICATION FOR ADRRHH.
There are a number of reasons that can justify the application of the audit to the field of DRRHH:
1. The audit control mechanism. Companies have a number of objectives set by departments, functions, areas or jobs. To check whether they are being achieved and if they add value to the company, looks to control mechanisms. It seeks business efficiency.
2. The different functions of the company present their results using quantitative methods. Willigham and Carmichael point out that the companies achieve their goals through the use of HR and economical. HR must be integrated as well as other functions that use quantitative methods to evaluate their performance. The DRRHH should also employ some mechanism to explain their results in quantitative terms.
3. Companies need different parts that add value to the set up. HR should be able to demonstrate that they are contributing to increasing the value of the company. Through the audit may reveal whether they are providing value, and if not, will recommend appropriate measures to change the situation.
4. The departure of-staff costs have a sizeable amount of control that is necessary. The reasons why the HR area is one of the most important being that depends on the most important resource is people and that the percentage share of staff costs is considerable.
5. The quest for quality. The human factor is a determinant of quality. The audit will improve the quality of the company.
6. It can be a source of competitive advantage. The companies aim to excel over their competitors and achieve competitive advantage must be difficult to imitate and sustainable over time.
Although the sources of competitive advantage create value, are easy to imitate. The HR can be an important resource in gaining sustainable competitive advantages.
ADRRHH The advantages are:
1. Promotes the idea that all managers are HR managers. A large part of the HR activities are performed by directors and must be analyzed as they are doing.
2. Lets see DRRHH as service provider and partner of the firm. There must be an isolated entity but must be part of the company.
3. It will establish programs of regular reviews which will check whether a particular practice or procedure is still useful or not.
4. Assessing whether the DRRHH facilitates or hinders the achievement of strategic objectives of the company.

12.5. SCOPE.
You can talk about audit in 3 ways:
a) Audit of HR management function. The start of the audit is to verify the work done DRRHH members.
b)
Audit of personnel functions to line managers. The department is DRRHH services available across the enterprise. The cooperation of line managers is essential to keep things running properly.
The audit will examine whether line managers are being responsible in terms of HR, is met with established policies and procedures, which comply with general rules and laws.
c)
Audit the level of employee satisfaction. Employees can not meet its objectives, expressed dissatisfaction, conflict will arise ... affect the work environment which adversely affect productivity.
The line managers will demand support services for HR management and IT to maximize productivity and performance of their workforce. Employees will be interested in the role of RRRHH and will require individualized management to resolve issues that affect them more simply and quickly.


12.6. Methodologies and tools.
The methodology to be followed would be:
1. Establish the purpose or mission of the audit, stating the problem.
2. Establish standards and reference systems.
3. Observing a series of facts or events.
4. Analyze and interpret information.
5. Comparison with benchmarks.
6. Analyzing the deviations that occur.
7. Give an opinion on the analyzed. It is both a diagnosis of possible causes of the problems and recommendations to address them.
To perform ADRRHH can use several different tools:
A)
Tools and techniques used to gather information:
1.
Sampling Techniques: It is a statistical tool that provides information and diagnostics based on a representative sample. You should only resort to this technique when you do not have time or means to carry out another analysis in greater depth.
2. Interviews: A conversation whose goal is to gather information. It is important to both managers and employees. It has two drawbacks: it is expensive and requires much time, what will be done to a limited number of people. The exit interview to be conducted to the employees leaving the company. It seeks information on whether the employee's expectations were different than they actually found, what he thinks of his salary, training, reasons for his departure ...
3. Questionnaires: This technique is widely used and serves to collect relevant data written to the problem. You get a more precise description of the actual state of the staffing situation. Use less time than the interview and often more honest and reliable.
4. Analysis of records: Used to ensure that it complies with company policies while certain legal aspects. You can obtain information on the number of accidents, the number of complaints from employees, turnover and absenteeism ...
5.
The external information: The auditor gathers information on firms like his to make comparisons. It gives a broader view and can obtain information from the INEM, the National Institute of Statistics, ...
6.
The personal experimentation techniques: It consists in comparing an experimental group with a control. The problem is that those not selected and those that distrust may feel manipulated. Ensure that groups do not share information or that the work environment does not affect one of the two groups is a difficult task.



B) Techniques and tools of analysis:
1.
Balanced scorecard: A management tool and is an information system. It can be defined as a set of management control tools for monitoring and correcting the effects of social policy.
To make a scorecard, the company sets out objectives and to achieve some key variables are defined and control is done through indicators. It is essential to correctly select these indicators, which may be financial and nonfinancial. In the case of ADRRHH are particularly relevant non-financial.
2.
Diagnosis of responsibilities or powers distribution table: Used to establish the role of each employee for the various staff functions. It clarifies the responsibilities of all involved.
3.
Flow Charts: Graphical representations of the sequence of various operations. Simplifying procedures, facilitating the monitoring function.
4.
Pareto chart and cause trees: They serve to differentiate the causes of the consequences and identify secondary causes. The auditor should prepare a list of possible causes and classify them in order of importance and in chronological order and make the Pareto chart. These diagrams do not give the sequence of events so we turn to the trees of the facts.
5. Benchmarking: compare the practices and results of a company's practices and results of the best. Garrigós defined as a technique of comparing a number of companies to learn from each other. Better practices are selected and set as their objectives. It is a continuous process of evaluating products, services and practices and relationship with the strongest competition or leader.
6. Social Balance: The employer or manager needs to know about the practices regarding HR such as accidents, absenteeism rates, wages, social ... The balance assumes a leadership role and strategically oriented to future change. It merely describes a situation: it is a picture of the social aspects that have occurred in the company.

12.7. REFERENCE SYSTEM.
During the audit will be observed situations and gather information which must be contrasted with an established pattern. This comparison leads to a deflection. Establish and understand the reference system being used is essential.
In the area of HR there is no standard reference system but if there is a set of benchmarks that are in the data banks: the ratios.
We found a wide variety of standards or benchmarks:
1. Standards of quantity: ratios are based on the criterion of quantity. We analyze the number of employees, number of accidents, the number of admissions, ...
2.
Quality standards: They focus on analyzing the quality of selection procedures used, how the performance evaluation, performance evaluation, ...
3.
Standards of time: We will measure the speed of integration of new arrivals, the average tenure of workers, the selection ratio, ...
4.
Standard cost: We analyze the direct and indirect cost of staff turnover, accidents at work, ...

12.8. CONCLUSION OF AUDIT: AUDIT REPORT.
It can be defined as a general description of the activities of both staff and includes recommendations for achieving effective practices such as formal recognition of the practices that are achieving their goal.
The audit report may have a structure like this:
- An opening paragraph that describes the operation being audited, the period covered, ...
- It shall contain any limitations imposed on the auditor's work.
- There will be a comprehensive assessment of the operation and the results are classified. They have to present favorable and unfavorable results.
- Adverse results should include a description of the divergence, suggesting remedial measures, and present the comments of workers in the department.
The audit report should also have formal characteristics: it must be clear, timely, brief and synthetic.
It is the final document which describes the HR function highlighting both the positives and negatives. Importantly, those items which require improvement and highlight the things you are doing well. If she stayed in praise failing in its work, since the audit involves giving recommendations to overcome the negative aspects. If the criticisms would only pick up settling in discouragement among those audited.
With all the information provided by the audit report the DRRHH know what are the strengths and weaknesses and to act accordingly.

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