Hygiene, Health and Safety at Work

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DEFINITION OF HEALTH AT WORK The regulations and procedures aimed at protecting the physical and mental integrity of the worker, to protect from health risks specific to the responsibilities, functions and duties of the post including the environment within which they are executed
DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE (industrial hygiene) Specialty occupied in preserving the health of workers in the performance of their duties and responsibilities, especially in the analysis of industrial processes and operations where chemicals are compounds of high risk individuals.
SAFETY AT WORK is an important because it helps ensure security in and confidence and positive attitude of workers, to improve the level of productivity and satisfaction.

THE DEFINITION OF ERGONOMICS word composed of two Greek particles: ergos and nomos meaning - respectively - activity and rules or laws of nature.
It is a discipline that seeks to humans and technology work in complete harmony, designing and maintaining products, jobs, tasks, equipment, etc.. in accordance with the characteristics, needs and human limitations. Failure to consider the principles of Ergonomics will lead to various negative effects - in general - are expressed in lesions / Enfermedad_profesional or deterioration of productivity and efficiency. Ergonomics considers man an integrated component of the physiological, psychological, pathological and sociological machine and a summation of equipment, tools, and environmental signals. In this way the ergonomics examines human performance not only aggression but also environmental, safety, hygiene and human well-being at work.
Ergonomics is essentially a practical technology and interdisciplinary, which aims at comprehensive optimization Man-Machine which will always include one or more human beings to fulfill any task with the help of one or more "machines. By saying comprehensive optimization we mean obtaining a systemic structure for each interacting group of men and general máquinas.En we consider the following:
· Anthropometry. - Trafficking in human body measurements relating to body size, shape, strength and work capacity. Anthropometric studies have been made relating to a specific population, as can be male or female, and in different age ranges.
· Ergonomics Biomechanics .- It is dedicated to the study of human body from the viewpoint of classical or Newtonian mechanics, and biology, but also based on the overall knowledge of occupational medicine, physiology, anthropometry and anthropology. Its main objective is the study of the body in order to obtain maximum performance, resolve a disability, or design tasks and activities that most people can perform them without risk of damage or injury.

· .- Environmental Ergonomics studies the physical conditions surrounding the human being and that influence their performance in various activities, such as the thermal environment, noise level, lighting level and vibration.
The application of knowledge of ergonomics and environmental design aid job evaluation and workstations, in order to increase performance, safety and comfort of those working in them.
· .- Cognitive Ergonomics deals with issues like reception <http://www.monografias.com/trabajos14/administ-procesos/administ-procesos.shtml> process signals and information, the ability to process and act on collected information, knowledge and experience. The interaction between humans and machines or systems dependent on information exchange in both directions between the operator and the system as the operator controls the actions of the system or machine through the information you enter and actions done on this, but they also must consider that the system feeds on certain information to the user by means of signals to indicate the status of the process or system conditions.

· Ergonomics Design and Evaluation .- The ergonomic design and evaluation area involved in the design and evaluation of equipment, systems and work spaces, their contribution used as a basis attitudes and anthropometric data obtained, biomechanical assessments, sociological and customs of the population that is targeted design. When designing or evaluating a workspace, it is important that a person may need to use more than one workstation to perform their activity, likewise, more than one person can use the same workspace in different periods of time, so it is necessary to take into account differences among users in terms of size, distance range, strength and visual capacity, so that most users can perform their job safely and efficiently.

· Ergonomics specific needs.- It focuses primarily in the design and development of equipment for people with physical disabilities among children and school, and the design of micro-autonomous. The difference presented by these specific groups lies mainly in that its members can not be treated as "general", because the characteristics and conditions for each are different, or are designs that make for a unique situation and a specific user.
· Ergonomics Preventive .- works closely with the disciplines responsible for safety and hygiene in work areas. Among its main activities is the study and analysis of security conditions, health and comfort of work.

· INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
Technical oAsesor that informs the application and development of SOS program
oApoyo in all departments of the correct application of security measures.
oPrevención and fire fighting, emergency crews, training, equipment maintenance.
oSeñalización, verification requirements, compulsory education plan executions.
oDesarrollo attitudes and skills of workers.
oElabora safety procedures, identify risks together with the sectors to sort tasks.
oCapacita providing resources, lectures, and permanent contact with the work fronts.
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
· Constitution of the United Mexican States, Section A, Article 123.
· Federal Labor Law.
· Federal regulation of safety, hygiene and working environment.
· Social Security Act.
· Law Social Security Institute and social services for workers in the state.
· Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization.
· Mexican Official Standards on safety and hygiene.

HEALTH PROBLEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS.
· Stress at work.
· Exposure to chemicals.
Food habits · inadequate.
· Automedicación irresponsible.
· Harmful habits.
PROPOSED SOLUTION
· Sure to breathe healthy air.
· Install ducts clean and dry.
· Avoid suspicious materials that expose odors and toxins.
• Provide appropriate equipment.
·, Ensure that the environment is not tarnished or containing mist.
· Lighting.
ELEMENTS FOR DEVELOPING A SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM.
Online · Responsibility and staff functions outside his expertise.
· Determine working conditions, the branch of activity, size and location of the company.
• The security should not be limited to the production area but the entire organization.
· Adaptation of man to work (adequate staffing).
· Security Compliance.
· Simulation Accident and aid.

HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE QUALITY OF LIFE AT WORK. Quality of life is the care and custody of the health and welfare of individuals in carrying out activities inherent to their positions.
RISKS OF WORK Are accidents and illnesses to which workers are exposed to exercise or work-related (FLL Article 473). It is considered as any workplace where the worker looks to provide services specified. As working time is any time the worker carries on any activity related to the company. Moreover, diseases arising from work environment in which the worker is forced to deliver services.
sThe risk factor is defined as one phenomenon, element or action of physical, chemical, organic, psychological or social that by their presence or absence is related to the accident or occurrence
enfermedades.EL general risk is the possibility that something unwanted happens, and the risk factor is the fact trigger, so it is necessary that both occur in a certain place and time, to leave an option and into concrete conditions of the worker.
WORK AND HEALTH: OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
The man with the job changes the environment around him, and he acts on this change directly impacting on health. Thus the prevention of such damage on the health not only depends on the person's control, understanding it as physical and mental institution, but also on environmental factors that shape working conditions.

ENVIRONMENT
We can divide the work environment:
1. Ambiente organic, is made up of the factors that can damage the natural and organic health worker:
a) Mechanical factors: relating to the use and handling of machinery and tools.
b) Physical factors: conditions of temperature, humidity, noise, vibration, radiation, lighting.
c) Chemical factors: toxic substances or chemical origin either in solid, liquid or gaseous.
d) Biological factors: bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
2. Ambiente psychological, derived from human environment. The current work organization systems and technological development, are implicit concepts like monotony, automation, etc.., Producing employee psychological problems, usually manifested in problems of inadequacy, dissatisfaction and stress.
3. Social environment, the value system of modern society creates problems that affect how workers relate.

RISK FACTORS
Following the classification of environments before we can consider the following risk factors of work:
ª Factors or safety.
th factors from physical, chemical and biological.
ª Factors arising from the nature of work.
ª Factors arising from work organization.
CONSEQUENCES OF A RISK OF WORK
1. Temporary disability: loss of powers or skills that partially or completely preclude a person to perform the job for a while.
2. Partial permanent disability: reduction of the powers or abilities of a person to work.
3.Total permanent disability: loss of faculties or aptitudes of a person who's impossible to do any work for the rest of his life.
4. Death.

Please see Article 11 of LIMSS we realize that the Labor Risk Insurance is one who understands the statutory scheme.
In accordance with Article 489 of the LFT does not release from liability the employer:
a) That the employee explicitly or implicitly had assumed the risks of working.
b) If the accident occurs by clumsiness or negligence of the worker.
c) That the accident was caused by carelessness or negligence of a coworker or a third person.

UNSAFE ACTS
Dependent causes of actions due to ignorance or carelessness of the worker himself, can result in an accident.
Why do people commit unsafe acts or practices?
ü Because they have not been properly trained in the work to be performed.
ü Why is not his job, however it develops
ü own initiative
ü For help a fellow
ü For higher orders
ü Out of curiosity
ü equipment or tool you use does not have an ergonomic design.
ü Inability to one of its members.
or obesity, limited view, and so on.
ü emotional problems with his wife or partner.
ü negative attitude or rebellion.
ü does not get along with her partner.
ü you afraid to do their work, but it performs
UNSAFE CONDITIONS
Causes arising out of the environment we live in and relating to the degree of uncertainty of where to execute the work. The most common facilities are:
Lack of good housekeeping.
Inadequate protective equipment, missing or defective.
Tool or equipment unsuitable or defective work.
Improperly installed equipment.
PREVENTION
Recommendations
1.Involucrar to all staff in the plans and health and safety programs.
2.Reunir material and managerial support required to implement the plans and health and safety programs.
3.Evaluar potential risks in all places where work is carried out.
Consecutively 4.Mejorar plans and health and safety programs
5.Asegurarse healthy air to breathe
Canals clean and dry 6.Instalar
Suspicious materials that expose 7.Evitar odors and toxins
8.Proporcionar appropriate equipment
9.Cuidar that the environment is not tarnished or mist containing
10.Iluminación appropriate
11.Usar helmet and protective gear to reduce injury in a fall.
12.Utilizar products less volatile or less dangerous.
13.Colocar speed limiters to reduce it.
14.Anteponer barriers to isolate the noise. Ie protection by separation.
15.Reforzar a body or structure that could engage.
WORK AND HEALTH: OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
The man with the job changes the environment around him, and he acts on this change directly impacting on health. Thus the prevention of such damage on the health not only depends on the person's control, understanding it as physical and mental institution, but also on environmental factors that shape working conditions.
or Environment
o1. Ambiente organic, is one which is composed of the factors that can damage the natural and organic health worker. These are:
oa) Mechanical factors: those that relate to the use and handling of machinery and tools
b) Physical factors related to conditions of temperature, humidity, noise, vibration, radiation, lighting.
c) Chemical factors: includes toxic substances or chemical origin either in solid, liquid or gaseous.
od) Biological factors: bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
o2. psychological environment is the one derived from the human environment. Systems of work organization of modern society, coupled with technological development, are implicit concepts like monotony, automation, etc.., Producing employee psychological problems, usually manifested in problems of inadequacy, dissatisfaction and stress.
o3. social environment, the value system of modern society creates, both inside the Company as at the level of external relations, problems that affect how workers relate.

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