Social contract. Is an agreement by which men said to have abandoned "the state of nature" to form de society in which they now live.
Hobbes and Locke, assumes that men at first lived in a state of anarchy in which there was no society, no government. Hobbes maintained that by the social contract men had surrendered in order to enjoy the order and safety of the organized state. Locke made the social contract the basis of his advocacy of popular sovereignety, the idea that the monarch must reflect tge will of the people.
Rousseau found the general will a means of estabilshing reciprocal rights and duites, privileges, and responsabilities as a basis of the state. Like Locke.
Rawls, in Political Liberalism, combines an idea of public reason with an account of substantive democratic values. The solution this problem that Rawls proposes is this: political power is legitimate only when it is exercised in accordance with a constitution the essentials of wich all citizens, as responsable ans rational, can endorse in the light of their common human reason.
Law. The collection of rules imposed by authority.
Rule of law. A state of order in which events conform to the law.
Totalitarian state. A government that subordinantes the individual to the state and strictly controls all aspects of life of the citizens.