Classified in Social sciences

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1.Explain Conservatism, liberalism, socialism and communism.

- Conservatism (1815-1860):

    • Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic solidarity, hierarchy, authority, and property rights

    • Humans beings are better off when guided and sheltered by authority

    • Is against to the ideals of Liberalism and Socialism

    • Highest goods: stability,security, order

    • Free individuals are willing to sin

    • Enemy: those seeking freedom of tradition

    • Social stability → requires physical force

    • during the Continental System France demanded money and men from the dependent countries in Europe; Europeans began to feel Napoleon was using them merely tools against England, leading to the use of nationalism against Napoleon’s empire and both Conservatism and Liberalism rose up against Napoleon

    • Commitment to traditional values and ideas with opposition to change or innovation

    • The holding of political views that favor free enterprise, private ownership, and socially conservative ideas

    • Generally refers to right-wing politics which advocate the preservation of personal wealth and private ownership (Capitalism) and emphasize independently and Individualism

  • Liberalism (1800-1900, XIX):

    • John Locke

    • Considered the most characteristic ideology of the 19th century

    • both Conservatism and Liberalism rose up against Napoleon

    • Human beings are better off when free

    • Highest goods:

      • freedom for individual

    • Enemy: the ones who try to repress individual freedom

    • a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality

  • Socialism:

    • Karl Marx

    • attacked both liberals and conservatives

    • Human beings are better off when firmly bound together in harmonious union;

      • substantial, social, and economic equality

    • Highest goods:

      • harmony and cooperation

    • Enemy: those who violated fraternal feelings

    • Eventually Republicanism diverted towards socialism

    • The former Soviet Union is an example of a socialist system. Cuba is an example of a socialist nation.

  • Communism:

    • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

    • uncertain synonym of socialism

    • Marx and Engels used the word Communism in 1848 to differentiate their variety of socialism

    • A group of german revolutionaries took the name for themselves in 1845

    • The word use revived after the Russian Revolution of 1917

    • The goal of communism is to create a stateless, classless society

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