The illustration is representative of the eighteenth century movement that causes a profound renewal in Europe and subjected to rational criticism of the worldview, philosophy, culture and religious beliefs accepted so far.
The ideals of the enlightened man were:
- dominance of reason as the pattern of human behavior
- high concept of utility
- man's rational behavior and ideal of human happiness
Ways of acting and of being characteristic of the Illustrated Man
- liberal and critical spirit
- faith in science and solving human problems
- disagreement with all tradition rooted in the routine
- consciousness of universal brotherhood è citizens of the world feel
- criticism of the Church as an intermediary between God and the believer
Often seen illustrated in the novel and Torres Villarroel Diego José Francisco de Isla, whose works have literary quality in satirical prose, and in principle show the sinking of the Spanish novel in the eighteenth century.
Meanwhile, in his writings of some literary character, the Benedictine monk Benito Jerónimo Feijoo Fray stresses the value of reason and experience in the search for truth, opposing superstition, false miracles and religious beliefs, especially in its The theater universal critical work.
In poetry have some interest Nicolas Fernandez de Moratin and, above all, Juan Melendez Valdes, with his sense of nature and eroticism and excitement of the new sentimentality. In the theater stands out above all Moratín Leandro Fernandez, whose work The girls themselves the problem of education of women and their freedom to choose a husband.
The trial is where the greatest exponents of the Spanish Enlightenment, first with Joseph Gallows, and its famous Moroccan Letters Spanish first manifestation of the trial brief, ironic, ideological and personal style. For his part, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, represents a true synthesis of the time to study local problems, road construction or operation of the mines, as well as landscape, history and economic life, highlighting in this latter field , where it appears as the first Spanish economist of his time. The confluence of ideas and literature, the didacticism and criticism, neoclassical and encyclopedic mind, gender is evident in a secondary and very characteristic of the era, such as the fable, whose growers include Felix Maria Samaniego and Thomas Iriarte.
ROMANTICISM IN SPAIN
The Romantic poetry
His most important works are: The poem El estudiante de Salamanca, El diablo mundo, large unfinished lyric too. And the loose lyric poems, among which are: A Jarifa in an orgy, the executioner, Song of the Cossack, The Pirate's Song, Hymn to the sun.
Rosalia de Castro
Writes his songs in Galician Galician, nostalgic collection of folk songs and fuck nova (new leaves). His most important work is the collection of poems on the banks of Sar, written in Castilian.
In verse up their rhymes, short poems as irregular syllabic rhyme and assonance
pairs between verses, dealing with poetic creation, and especially about love. Himself
Becquer collected all his poems under the title Book of the sparrows, but this book will be
posthumously published only as Rimas.
Captions written in prose, 28 stories of Spanish traditions, in which elements predominate
fantastic and supernatural and are considered true prose poems.
- The main topic is usually love, marked by a tragic destiny. There is also a preference for historical, legendary and chivalry.
- The characters embody the idea of freedom.
- The romantic hero is a mysterious character who seeks happiness, but one in pursuit of unhappiness. He is a seducer and a rebel who does not accept rules or demands and has something diabolical.
- The romantic heroine is a beautiful woman capable of giving his life for love, often suffers from it.
The most important playwrights: the Duke of Rivas and Jose Zorrilla. In literature, Rivas was the protagonist of the romantic Spanish. Don Alvaro, or the force of destiny was the first successful romantic Spanish drama. Zorrilla, meanwhile, has his most important work on Don Juan Tenorio, a story which tells the stories of the Trickster of Seville by Tirso de Molina and El Don Juan, Moliher.