Q4) Compare and contrast dominant culture and subculture.
Answer) Organizational culture represents a common perception the organization's members hold. A dominant culture expresses the core values shared by a majority of the organization's members. Subcultures tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems, situations, or experiences faced by groups of members in the same department or location. Subcultures include the core values of the dominant culture plus additional values unique to members of the respective department. If organizations were composed only of numerous subcultures, organizational culture as an independent variable would be significantly less powerful. It is the "shared meaning" aspect of culture that makes it such a potent device for guiding and shaping behavior.
Q5) Describe the characteristics of a strong culture.
Answer) A strong culture should more directly affect organizational outcomes because it demonstrates high agreement about what the organization represents. Such unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty, meaning, and organizational commitment. For example, with high cultural consensus and intensity surrounding the adaptability dimension of culture, organizations in one study experienced gains in net income, revenue, and operating cash flow. A study of nearly 90,000 employees from 137 organizations found that culture strength or consistency was related to numerous financial outcomes when there was a strong sense of mission and high employee involvement.
Q6) Discuss the difference between the clan, the adhocracy, the market, and the hierarchy.
Answer) A common culture framework groups organizations into one of four types, each with has its own assumptions, beliefs, values, artefacts, and even criteria for effectiveness:
1. "The Clan." A culture based on human affiliation. Employees value attachment, collaboration, trust, and support.
2. "The Adhocracy." A culture based on change. Employees value growth, variety, attention to detail, stimulation, and autonomy.
3. "The Market." A culture based on achievement. Employees value communication, competence, and competition.
4. "The Hierarchy." A culture based on stability. Employees value communication, formalization, and routine.