Interphase nuclei

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Nuclo intrfasico: concpto and Structure: concpto: structura cytoplasm x sxada dl the 1st wrap the mmbranosa q actua cm gntica d mmoria the clul. * Basic Structu: l I prmit we distinguish nuclear envelope, chromatin nuclolo and nucloplasma. 1.envoltura nuclear form x 2 mmbranas sxadas x 1 spacio atravsada x xos prinuclar and the ribosome + mmbrana extrna pose on their suprficie extrior. Salamis nuclear envelope enl pose beside their nucloplasmico d mmbrana intrna 1st layer dnsa dnominada nuclear lamina, Conti 3 polippti2 principals, prints a, b, c. its function, soxtar and rforzar the nuclear envelope. -xos nuclars: every 1 sta limited x 1 cm compljo structura known discoidal xo.l compljo dl dl constituted xo sta q x 8 Blocked organized in protic subunidads: subunits. annular luminal column d, dl Aniya. d each bloq sobrsaln fibriyas protic compljo both la2 dl. -laminiyas Aniya: dífrnts types in gonads clulars d ls puedn encontrars enl compljos idnticos cytoplasm to ls d ls nuclars xos mmbranosas forming cells 1as, Nuclo entrl laminiyas yl aniyadas.l transxt cytoplasm funcionalmnt dl compljo xl xo s difundn pqñas molculas rapidamnt. xa ql incorxar grands molculas DPRK's nuclear ncsita 1 mcanismo d s transxt, dl qs responsible rcptors d ls q ensanxanl nuclear imxtacion xo. ncsita the collaboration xayo s nucloxinas d, q s prmitn ql diaphragm expands, ad + s ncsita q 1 short pptido Snal sliminada after pntracion. 2.cromatina: componnts: sl + dl abundant nuclear DNA and incorporated x Protina. * DNA: cDNA formed x 2 q d nucloti2, 1idas form 1 dobllic alrddor d 1 ej cntral. d 1 every nuclotido consists pntosa sugar qs 1 qs to 1e covalntmnt 1 phosphate and 1 bas nitrognada. ls 4 Bass: 2 purine (Adnin and guanine) and 2 pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine), entryas s stablcn puents d idr. q mantienn 1idas both cDNA d if nucloti2 notif. the bass scuencia d qs complmntarias tienne. sl st modload d watsn body XA 1 and Crick DNA quantity d x clul s constant and a function d sta chromosome +. DNA funcionalmntl the rprsnta the molcula d erncia. the variables on both 1ica rgion aci2 nuclicos s the bass nitrognadas q altrnancia in each Molco prsnt, sta s the bass xtadora d d scuencia information includes gntica.l gnoma umano 3 biyons d 1s d bass pars distributed in 46 chromosome +. gns snlmntos ls q q contienn infor dtrmina ls d ls spcis cm caractristicas set, so each 1 cm ls d ls q componn individuals. each scuencia d gn s 1 q nuclico ac 1 polipptido encodes functional. * Protina: puedn qualifying at in 2 groups:-iston: Basic caractr Protina d dbid globulars to its high aminoaci2 ls contnido in arginine and lysine. Dífrnts 5 types: 1, 2a, 2b, 3 and 4. -not iston: include:> Protina acid: the nucloplasmina s 1e to ls iston 2a and 2b and n1 s 1e Protina to ls iston 3 and 4, enl Nuclo existn Protina also acidic rsiduals.> Protina enzymatic: intrvienn in funcions ls q ralizal dna. organization, "10nm fiber d: qs lslmntos structura rpitn in sta d notic rcibnl tienne nucloso + and 1 diamtro d 10nm formed x 1 sucsion d nucloso + notif contact if. each consisting nucloso + x 2 d each molculas iston 1A D ls qs octomro associated form 1 xa, x 2 laps rolled the molcula d d DNA. sl st modload d d chromatin fiber extndida. d-30nm fiber: xa stas d show the fiber s existncia Throw soln modload dl, which the fiber d sgunl s disponlicoidalmnt to 10nm mode 1s 30nm d d d Muey diamtro. enl mtafasico chromosome-chromatin: the chromatin q extndida enl Nuclo intrfasico find even condnsars 1es 100 db d vcs + XA + d ls chromosome clul in the division. 3. nuclolo:componnts: structura mmbrana Carnt d, s distinguished: componnt fibrillar and granular. organizadors nuclolars: sn part d nuclear chromatin whose DNA they contain rDNA dnominado gns multipls xa rpti2 encoded form q 3 d LS 4 arns-ribosomes. funcions dl nuclear> rplicacion means clul DNA dividirsl q will q xa db duplicars information Q Conti gntica s cells; ijas forward to ls, s possibl rplicacion dl mdiant the DNA. s 1 q enl smiconsrvativo procs each mold CADNA actua cm x to the new cDNA sintsis d d nucloti2. * d mcanismo the rplicacion: s starts with s located scuencias spcials cm SNALS d q act initiation, origns d rplicacion. Dyos from start breaking open the dobllic x puents d d ls idr., thanks to action d 1 enzyme, DNA-elicasa. the sxacion s mantie x 1ion each ebra the dl and d Protina dsstabilizadoras d LALIC. in each Origne d rplicacion s make 2 orkiyas q dirccions opustas CRCN in the bidirccional s rplicacion dna dl. the new CADNA sintsis d d s nucloti2 enzyme catalyzed DNA x polimrasa. catalyzes the formation sta d 1 link fosfodistr entrl 3'-idroxilo trminal d 1 nuclotido dnominado arn cbador and 1 nuclotido whose bas sa complmntaria dl nitrognada qs nuclotido in enfrnta the CADNA q actua cm mold. q Racciones catalyzes the DNA sta-ql polimrasa requires the CADNA crcimiento d s dirccion occur in 5 'to 3'. to Mr. cDNA antixallas the CADNA sintsis q tien d the mold of d cm dirccion 3'-5 's continuously towards the other s d discontinuous with fragmntos d Okazaki. q CADNA sinttiza the continuous d d notic rcibl host and the dotted rtrasada. s the only driver ncsita 1 RNA cbador, while q in the absence rtrasada ac xa 1 RNA cbador each DNA fragmnto.l CADNA sinttizado in rtrasada and CADNA sufrn 1 plgamiento pattern, form 1 compljo 1ico, so Protina d ls rplicacion puedn utilizars conjuntamnt in both rplicacion d cDNA. 1as Protina spcials ay, q topoisomrasas prevent DNA ql q s mdida ENRD to orkiya d rplicacion progresses. topoisomrasa 1 gnra the temporary break in the 1st ebra 1 single, as q c q d can rotate both pieces each ebra indpndientmnt. topoisomrasa 2 gnra the transient break in both 1 cDNA.



* Dl rxacion DNA: DNA polimrasa prsnta the 1st activity corrctora d errors, dnominada corrccion d tests. ants d add 1 new nuclotido CADNA in the last crcimiento vrifica sil nuclotido added corrcto d prsnta 1 sideboard CADNA bass with mold, if not s, polimrasaliminal ENLAC nuclotido dsaparado cortandol just fosfodistr q formar.l mcanismo d d d corrccion tests xq explains the dna dna polimrasa sinttiza SoLaMnT enl sntido 5'-3 'to psar inconvnients d ls dl mcanismo in orkiya d rplicacion. enl place q in MAKINARIA d rplicacion comt 1 error in the copy, nuclotido dsaparado Qbd 1. if not s corrigl dsaparamiento s result in 1 mutation, q 1 pair afctando SoLaMnT nucloti2 pued dstruir d 1 sil body change in 1 s products vital position scuencia d d the DNA. the availabl clul mcanismo d d 1A dl rxacion d dsaparamientos DNA. dsaparmientos the imxtancia d ls in ls when dmostro umanos s dscubrio s d q 1 prdisposicion erditaria produced some cancrs sta gn x Mutacions enl production rsponsabl d d 1 d ls dl sistma Protina rxacion d d dsaparamientos. erdar 1 gn dl sistma damaged rxacion d d dsaparamientos prdispon the individual padcr canker. > Transcript: Jacob and Monod were mularon the ncsidad Kiens for the existncia d 1 d intrmdiario entrl Kimicar Nuclo yl cytoplasm, Where does the sintsis d Protina, cntral d dilucidandol dnominado dogma of biology: DNA -> RNA -> Protina. the sintsis d arn s yeva out x dl DNA transcription. to sta difrncia arn adnl dl constituted only x 1 CADNA nucloti2 d, instead they contain ribose and uracil in dsoxirribosa d d vz thymine. *types d arn - mnsajro arn: x the 1st long established CADNA d nucloti2. yeva the cytoplasm clul contnida information to rlativa enl ordn nuclear DNA in situars dbn q xa ls aminoaci2 the dtrminada Protina sintsis d 1A. transfrncia-arn d: x 1 CADNA up nucloti2 d d tridimnsional conformation, as caractristica in "oja d trbol "qs ImxtanT compliance xal d idntifica and its funcion.l arnt transxta Astal aminoaci2 ls s where the sintsis Protica ised, ls ribosomes +." ribosomal RNA: sl constituent ribosomes fundamntal d ls + ls q sn d organuls clulars encarga2 the sintsis Protica. * Gnral d mcanismo transcription: where mjor s knows s in Bactria. polimrasa s RNA enzyme catalyzes the interplay q q occurs during transcription. only exist in Bactria arn-1 type d intrvien in polimrasa q sintsis dífrnts class d d ls arn. RNA polimrasa s scuencias spcificas dl 1e to DNA, act cm SNALS d q d transcription initiation, x lo qs ls yama promoter. 1e s polimrasa RNA promoter and causes the dsnroye qs adn.l dl dobllic the primary sigma factor s rconocimiento d dl rsponsabl the scuencia promoter. sigma factor s dspusl pound. only 1 d ls dl DNA s cDNA transcribed. to the RNA mdida q polimrasa s dsplaza along the CADNA d d DNA, s van incorxando ls nucloti2 complmntarios with libration d pyrophosphate stabl1002el ENLAC fosfodistr corrspndient. Terms transcription when s reaches Snal d trminacion spcifica. when DNA polimrasa s dl s SXA rasocia with 1 sigma factor free and begins busqda d 1 promoter, which started from d dl d procs nuevol transcription. * Dl DNA transcription in eukaryotic cells;: l procs s complicates the intrvncion d 3 x arn-polimrasas dífrnts. - Arn-polimrasa 1: intrvien transcription in type 1 gns d ls q x to sintsis dl encode rRNA. molculas numro polimrasa d arn-1 s 1EN sucsivamnt the promoter in each 1idad d xa ised transcription transcription. d ls rRNA cDNA so formed molculas d sn 45s rRNA, stas sufrn procs d 1 d ripening ants go nuclear to cytoplasm dl. the 45s rRNA dl sintsis enl occurs componnt fibrillar nuclolo dl, while maturing s q yeva out componnt granular enl. ls rRNA empaqta2 with Protina sn enl nuclolo forming RNP particles. ls ribosomal particles originate subunidads q Mnor and increased the nuclear envelope atravisan ys xa constituirl assembled ribosome cytoplasm enl. - Arn polimrasa 3: participates in sintsis d arn pqños, codifica2 x ls gns type 3. s also found in multipls copies rpti2 located in tandm and promoters rgions sn ls xa spcificas each arnt or 5S rRNA. both rRNA cm ls ls arnt d prokaryotes and eukaryotes sufrn procs d 1 q maturation consist in molculas + fragmntacion in association with Protina pqñas and enl case d ls rRNA. - Arn-polimrasa 2: d arn sintsis catalyzes the mRNA originated q, d ls gns from type 2. 1ion d the RNA-2 to DNA polimrasa ised to nivl d s rgions promotoras.l crcimiento the CADNA d arn d s dirccion also occurs in 5'-3 '. ayan dqs ants polimrizado added to 30 nucloti2 s nuclotido Primroses, x its extrmo 5 ', 1a guanosine rcibl nombre d mtilada q capruza. when the RNA-2 yega polimrasa to scuencias ls-d trmi nation, l arn pound sinttizado s dl ls 2 cDNA vuelvn DNA to form the dobllic.l arn r100 yegado will suffer its inmdiatamnt 1 short x extrmo 3 '. a st short follows the addition line d 1 d d 1 CADNA nucloti2 d poliadnina, x action d the enzyme poly-a-polimrasa. ls arn forma2 well with its capruza and its tail, rcibnl nombre d d arnn primary transcript. sinttizando going to mdida qs, l arnn s 1e to form compljos Protina and dnomina2 RNPN. continuacionl arnn to suffer 1 procs d maturation, enl long splice qs dl scuencias arn, ls xaliminar introns and lead to mRNA DFinitivo qs slctivamnt transxtado the cytoplasm.

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