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T.10 POPULATION: A group of organisms of the same species capable of breeding with each other and that occupies a given area.
Population ecology studies the factors that regulate their dynamics and asin as its evolution over time. GROWTH STOCKS. There are two opposite forces that act on the growth of populations: the biotic potential (r) or d ability to reproduce and environmental resistance, hampering their growth. The maximum number of individuals in a population that support the activity puee called capaciodad environmental load (K). Once this phase and equilibio, population increases tamaño.Si no longer means camibia, the equilibrium level of the population may be different. Most species of animals and plants siuen a growth curve or logistic sigmoid. There is another creimiento model represented by a J-curve or exponential.
Two growth strategies, "strategists Species r. great capacity for invasive and opportunistic breeding. Populations are growing exponentially, often poorly organized in ecosystems, at early stages. -Species strategists K. Agencies are more specialized and efficient and the use of resources. In well-organized ecosystems. Populations are sigmoidal (S curve). Both share an inherent capability to autorreguarse and perpetuated generation after generation.
Biotic and population growth. Interspecific relationships: There are iterations between populations of different species. -Competition. The populations of two species compete when they use the same resource medium. -Predation. Predators can come to exterminate the prey populations. -Parasitism. An organism that lives off another, which is called the host. - Symbiosis. Two organisms of different species have a symbiotic relationship when associated to live in community, giving mutual benefit. Intraspecific RELATIONS: They are the interactions that occur between individuals of the same species. Competition between individuals of a population is more intense if they belong to the same species. Involves two types. "Demographics. with increasing population density, decreased birth rate. -Ethological or behavioral factors. Among the clearest forms of behavior are family, territorialism and migration.
ECOSYSTEM IN TIME: The dynamics of the ecosystem can be studied with relaccionados time tb. We could define a series of stages, in response to changes in dominant species. This succession of stages or phases serial up to a stage of relative stability is called ecological succession. The final state towards which ecological succession, stable and in equilibrium with the prevailing climate in the region in question is called the climax.
When the early stages of a succession ecoogica sit on an area that had not previously been occupied by any other community, we speak of primary succession. Surface of a rock, sand dune, a lava flow. If the sequence begins, however, in an area that has disappeared in the community that already existed, abandoned agricultural fields, or a forest cut down, there is talk of secondary succession.


MARINE ECOSYSTEM: The marine circulation and movement of organisms within it are conditioned by physicochemical factors such as t ª, salinity, light and depth.
Zoning in the marine environment. It can be divided horizontally in the following regions: "The coastal zone. It is the coastal region. -Neritic zone. Are surface water of the platform. -Ocean or pelagic zone. Water body that extends from the shelf to the open sea.Bathyal-zone. Hanging high and equivalent to the continental slope. -Abyssal zone. Great depths. Vertical zonation is determined by the ability of light penetration. Euphotic-zone. illuminated by sunlight. Aphotic-zone. where no sunlight reaches. The vertical distribution of marine organisms at the bottom differentiating organisms adapted to live on a solid substrate and a domain pelagica, the free-living organisms that swim actively (nekton) or floating in the open ocean (plankton). MARINE COMMUNITIES. We will focus on the littoral zone, because of their close interaction with human activities. PRODUCERS. They are part of the phytoplankton, are plant organisms that float in water. The marine phytoplankton is crucial in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and xigeno in the biosphere. The producers are unicellular algae, diatoms and dinoflageados.
Tb stand kelp forests multicellular algae Vedes are located near the surface, and brown algae at the bottom of roas. Tb be considered in the grasslands of higher plants.
CONSUMER. The animal communities of zooplankton, nekton and those of the benthos. -Zooplacton.Son microscopic animals or small tman hat floating in the water. We distinguish: - permanent Plankton. Crustaceans. Plankton-time. only spend part of their life cycle to be the plankton. -Necton. They are actively swimming organisms in the water composed of numerous species of crustaceans, fish, turtles, cephalopods and some mammals. They feed on both plankton and the benthos. -Bentos. Animals that live fixed to the substrate or spend much time on the bottom to feed. Among them are some that are fixed to the substrate such as sponges, bryozoans, sea anemones and corals, others with very little mobility as annelid worms, mollusks .. and there tb fish like sole.
T11.RESIDUOS. Waste is waste products from solid, liquid and gas, generated in production and consumption activities, which have no value econo either by lack of appropriate technologies that allow its use or the absence of a market for products can recover. With the growth of industrial societies, the problem of waste in urban ecosystems is getting worse. It is uneconomic to solid material return to their place of origin, so it is necessary to store this waste in the smallest space possible.
The most common adverse effects of waste are:-sanitary-hygienic problems. They are the sources of infection due to bacterial contamination and proliferation of insects. -Environmental issues. Cause pollution of the receiving environment and aquifer. -Economic problems. Require large investments in plant and processing equipment. "Social problems. Generate a large impact on quality of life and health of people.
The solution to the problem of waste requires a sustainable development strategy of highest priority to reducing the generation of waste at source, its reuse and recycling.
Waste management is called the set of operations to be performed since genern waste to disposal in a controlled manner. Waste management must include mechanisms for collection, removal techniques, treatment of waste and storage of special waste in suitable and safe sites. They include the preparation, collection, transportation, treatment and the elimination. The method of disposal varies with the type of waste. The waste is classified: "According to their physical state: solid, liquid and gaseous. - According to their activity: non-living resources, assets and radioactive materials. "According to the type of activity that generates it. Waste primary source, secondary and tertiary.

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