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Classified in History

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3. The thirty years war (1618-1648)

Causes:

This war was caused because of the conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire
Gradually it developed into a more general conflict for European politican dominance
The main problem of the war and the different participants:

1. Protestants uprising in Bohemia:
Some protestants nobles expelled the Catholic and appointed a Protestant KIng in bohemia. The emperor who was King of Bohemia too fought against them.
2. Two sides were formed: 1. The emperor had the support of the German Catholic and the King of Spain and Portugal 3. The protestants allied with German but they were defated
3. Swedish participation: 1. After yhe Surrunder of Breda the German Catholic took the protestants possesion so the protestants king of Sqeden came their aid. 2. This created a great balanced of power and a peace treaty was signed
4.France joined the conflict: After the Surrunder of Breda, France fetaed the powerful Spain and Holy Roman Empire so thrrought it was a CAtholic State, joined with protestants and defeated the Spanis troops in Rocroi

Conseuqences of the war: The war was taking a high toll on all the power. So they signed the peace of Westalia in 1648 and the war ended:

1. The Spanish monarchy lost their power over Europe
2. The northern provinces of The Low countries became independent and a great trading and naval power
3. The Soverignity of The German States was recognised. Religious tolerance and limits on the power held by the emperor wer Stablished
4. Sweden became the dominant state in the Baltic Coast
5. France obtained territories in the Holy Roman Empire and became the leading power in Europe.

France and the absolutism
Absolutism: Political sistem where all the power was held by the king. The main example is during the EArly Modern Age with King Louis XIV of Francia (1643-1715)

Caracteristics of the reign of Louis XIV:
1. The king had unrestricted power. He made the laws and governed through decreased
2. He had a large court of advisors who lived with him in the Palace of Versalles
3. He created a centrallised state by incrising the number of officials acting under his order: secretaries, police, mayors, magistrates or judges and a board of governors under The Prime Minister or Chanceller
4. He gave the administrative officials who came from the burgoesi proffesional status
5. He expand the diplomatical corps
6. He had extremly well organised proffesional aemy with impresive weapons and deffensive fortress
7. He intervend in the enconomy by introducing durties and creating royal workshops

The support os absolutism: 
  1. The french church: Absolute power was cosidired a divine right because the king was God´s representatives
  2. Some thinkers cosidered absolute monarchy to be the best posible political system
The generalisation: Absolutism began to spend the majority of the European states except England and Holland where parlamentary system where introduced.


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