NORMS AFFECTING TRANSLATION: According to Toury Preliminary norms (which includes translation policy and directness of translation) Operational norms (Matricial norms, Textuaal-linguistic norms).
AGOST CULTURAL REFERENCES TECHNIQUES: Same reference (this reference could be known all over the world), Explanation (Clarify the reference), Cultural adaptation (replacement of a ST reference for a TT one), Omission of the reference, Neutralization (replacement by an alement that is generic or explains the one of the ST) Internalization (a segment shared by source and target culture).
TYPE OF TEXTS (REISS): Content-focused (Deals with what the author says (press releases, comments, essays, specialized literature)
Form-focused (How the authot express himself, literary texts, poems, texts that express more than they state) CF is all about what the author says while the FF is all about how the authot expresses himself.
Appeal-focused (Present information with a particular perspective, an explicit purpose, involving a non-linguistic result. Publicity, advertising, propaganda)
Audio-medial (non only represent the simple transcription of oral communications, but rather are more or less important components of a larger complex. Rario, TV newscasts reports)
BRIEF CONDITIONS: Initiator/sender, Reader, Channel, Sociocultural moment (brunette), Historical moment (H&M), Coherence and cohesion (Brunette) Reception in TC (toury)
FUNCTION: Buhler (representation, expression, persuasion) Jakobson (Referential, expressive, Conative, Poetic, Phatic, Metalingual)
EXTRA/INTRATEXTUAL FACTORS (NORD): 1.External text factors ( text function, sender, sender's intention, audience, Channel, Place of communication, Time of communication, Motive of communication) 2. Internal text factors (subject matter, contentm Presupposition, text composition, non-verbal elements, lexis, sentence structure, suprasegmental features)
DOMESTICATION/FOREGNIZATION (VENUTTI) 1. Adaptation of the source culture to the target culture references, reduction cultural values 2. Keep the SCultural elements in the target translation in order to make known the author's culture.
MOLINA HURTADO TRANS TECHNIQUES: Adaptation, Amplification, Borrowing, Calque, Compensation, Description, Discursive creation, Established equivalent, Generalization, Linguistic amplification, Literal trans, Modulation, Particularization, Reduction, Substitution, Transposition, Variation.
TRANSLATION PROBLEMS NORD: Pragmatic (related to aspects of updated information, correcting outdated references or correcting failures in the source text)
Convention-related/Cultural (info that the reader will not understand from the source culture)
Linguistic (long sentences, colom)
MISTAKES NORD = PROBLEMS
MISTAKES HURTADO: Comprehension of the source text ( Contradiction, false friends, non sense, different meaning, addition, omission, wrong proposal for a culture reference, inadecuate proposal for linguistic deviations like tone, style, dialect and idiolect) Expression in the Target language (Ortography, punctuation, grammar, Vocabulary, Writing, textual mistakes like the coherence or the use of connectors) Pragmatic deviations/Adequate proposals.
DIFFERENCES GALICIAN BRITISH CULT: Linguistic (Verbal tenses, Collocations, word order, syntax, punctuation) Cultural (the relationship between B and G culture has its connection in the Celtic culture. Not only B culture share this background, but also Irish culture)
CHILDREN: Publishing market, double reader, some texts are written to be read alout, images, domestication/fore, Function(entertainment, didactic, pedagogical)