Kalergi

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Kalergi:

Creation of Pan-European Union 1923.
-Against conquest by Soviet Russia and economic domination by the USA. 
-Inspired by Pan-American Union in chile 1922
-Inspired by USA to create United States of Europe.
-European global supremacy had ended: technical progress had made states obsolete.
-World: Pan-America, Russian Federal Empire, British F.E., East Asia and Pan-Europe.
-Definition of Europe: Geographical, cultural(continents that allowed for new global power fields), and political.
Britain and Russia excluded:
+Relations with British Federal Empire based on co-operation and mutual defence. Britain mediador Pan-America. If they loose they can join.
+Russia had chosen Bolshevism. Was regarded as Eurasian entity. If Europe did not unite they could push the back to Rhine, same as if Germany united with Russia. If democracy wins they can return to pro-European stance.
-Pan Europe function was to secure peace: Internally(supranational structures and cooperation), common parliament of two chambers(a popular and a federal) and externally(common defence alliance).
-Common market without internal customs barriers.
-Accepted principles of democracy and nation states: Potential for conflict in Central and Eastern Europe. Proposed to accept borderlines and national minorities  protected by "Magna Carta of Tolerance". Nationality problems would be reduced by economic and political integration.
-C-K welcomed Turkey in 1934.
-English as common second language: Schools and facility.
First Congress of Pan-European Union 1926;
+Attended by politicians and intellectuals
+9 points like: Paneuropean confederation, federal court, military alliance, customs union, European currency, protection of minorities.

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