in the 15 th century Constantinople was conquered by the turks. New technical advances allowed Europeans to explore the African coast and they even got to America. So te croun of castile discoverd America. However, the nobles also reduced their power a little in favor of the king and the Bourgeoisie. On the Iberian Peninsula Catholic Monarchs unified most of the territories on the peninsula.
ferran (future king of Aragon) and Isabel (future king of castile) as catholic monarchs. The union between Isabel and ferran didn't create a new kindom, but they did create a new dynasty. The agreement of segovia (1475 was to allow the Catholic Monarchs to rule both crows but each territory maintained its own borders. Money.
durig the 15th century, (match the causes and consequences):
great epidemics (like black death) were reduced population grew. The agricultural production increased population grew. Trade and manufacturing industries developed some of bourgeois became very wealthy. Monarchs concentrated many of the political powers of the nobles this system is called absolute monarchy.
the emigrate of granada (1482-1492). The kingdom of navarre (an ally of France 1515). Portugal (it was inherited by Felipe II in 1581). The kingdom of napales (1505). The canary islands (1496) melilla, oran and bougie ( diferent places in north of Africa, from 1497 to 1509)
in Castile queen Isabel took over all the power. She reduced the power of nobility.Howevr in the crown of Aragon, king ferran respected the confederation and the old institutions, like the corts, the generalitat the consell de centn de Barcelona (town hall), etc. So with the promulgation (publication) of the "constitoció de l'observança" in 1481 all the authorities had to be loyal to the catalán laws (in catalonia but i the other centuries it was the same as well). The majority of the peasants in the north of castile mhad small or medium-sized plots (parcel) of land, while in Andalusia most of `people didn't own lands. The majority of the land was owned by the nobility and the clergy. Although their political power was reduced, they increased their economic power thanks to the majorat. New laws helped to develop trade, navigation and Manufacturing. So in cities like Vilencia and Barcelon, a strong Bourgeoisie class developed. But the clergy and nobles continued to own of the land. Majorats existed also in catalonia