Jacobite rebellions: to return James VII of Scotland and II of England or his descendants to the throne of Great Britain after eign kicked out during the Glorious Revolution. Jabotism because of James name in Latin. The Magna Carta was a document signed by King John after negotiations with his barons and their French and Scots allies at Runnymede, Surrey, England. Battle of Hastings between the Anglo-Saxon English and an invading Norman army. Victory for the Normans. William, the Duke of Normandy, was crowned as King William I England. Witan/Witenaġemot: political institution in Anglo-Saxon England. An assembly of ruling class to advise the king. Composed by important noblemen in England, ecclesiastic and secular. Scramble/Partition of Africa: the invasion, occupation, division, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism. 19th century. The Tudor rose also called the Union rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the Tudor dynasty. It is a combination of both the white and red roses from the House of York and the House of Lancaster. Eleanor of Aquitaine: queen consort of England after marrying Henry II of Eng. Giving the province of Aquitaine to England. She inspired many people to take part in the Second Crusade. Battle of Trafalgar: between the navies of France and Spain on one side, and Great Britain on the other. Near Cape Trafalgar. GB won under the orders of Admiral Nelson. William Rufus or Will II: the third son of William I of England, was King of England with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. Known as William Rufus or William the Red because of his red-faced appearance. AEthelred II/AEthelred the Unready was King of England twice. For most of his reign he had to fight off Viking invaders. He was unready or badly advised. When he asked for ideas about how to do things he was told the wrong thing. Short Parliament only lasted for three weeks. Charles I of England, also king of Scotland, was having problems with the Church of Scotland and needed money to go to war with them. So he called the parliament for the 1st time but they refused to pay bc of his abuses. So he send them away. Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou: By his marriage to Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, Geoffrey had a son who succeeded to the English throne as King Henry II. IRB/Irish Republican Brotherhood: organisation formed to help make an independent democratic republic in Ireland. They played an important role in making Ireland independent from britain. Maeshowe/Maes Howe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland, Orkney, Scotland along with Skara Brae and Knap of Howar. Battle of Naseby, English Civil War, between Royalist army of King Charles I and the Parliamentarian New Model Army, commanded by Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell. This political campaign was successful, forming the New Model Army. Battle of Plassey in Bengal. It was an important British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies.Which meant a huge growth of their area of control in the Indies. Battle of Boyne: between the English King James II, and William of Orange victory for Will ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland. Armada: Spanish naval fleet King Philip II to attack Britain. It was defeated by the Royal Navy queen Elizabeth I's reign. Battle of Waterloo fought in Belgium between French and British forces. Napoleons army was growing. The only country left was Great Britain. The Royal Navy had many ships, so France didn't invade. However Napoleon took over most of mainland Europe. Duke of Wellington won the battle. Oliver Cromwell: Republic of England. Head of that and Commonwealth creator. He commited a ethnic cleansing in Ireland movin all Irish Catholic to the northwest, having them suffering famine, massacres, etc.