LEARNING STRATEGIES:TYPOLOGY:1)Direct Strategies (involve and require language use)-Memory: specific techniques to Store and retrieve info. (Only related to more superficial ‘thinking’,repetition for practicising…)-Cognitive: mental Operations and direct manipulation of language to obtain knowledge And understanding of the linguistic system. (Dictionaries, resources, Analogy techniques- deeper processing)-Compensation/Communication: Behaviours adopted to compensate for lack of Knowledge.(Code-Switching).2)Indirect Strategies: -Metacognitive: Learning to learn, i.E. Being aware and reflecting on learning Process to help plan and arrange our behaviour. (deciding consciously What you are going to do to learn better. ‘Doing’ it is a cognitive process)-Affective: techniques to achieve better control Over our emotions and attitudes towards the Ig learning Process.-Social: social behaviour in the learning process, making the Most of every opportunity to practice and learn (watch films in their SL).How Things are today: Which Strategies are the best, the ones that good ss use?-It Depends on each individual. Adapted to your personality, age.-A strategy is neither good nor bad per Se; It’s useful if it fits the task (and type of instruction) and the Student’s style, and if it’s employed effectively.It’s not What strategies good ss use, but the fact that they use them and how They do, i.E. That they’re proactive and choose to put effort in Their learning process. SELF-REGULATION: control over his own life, Actions, behaviours, thoughts and emotions.To Which extend do strategies explain differences in SLA development in Different individuals?-Students who do at their own without caring About strategies and others who recognize the strategies they are Better and improve them.Strategies:product->self-regulation:process.-Self-regulation:the degree to which ss are active participants in their own learning,through a conscious process of self-control(for thoughts,actions & feelings).Your ability to motivate yourself.-Action-oriented(Leaders,people who take decisions,who plan,take actions,project their life,think about their future)vs.Stated-oriented people-Action-oriented:better ls,they self-regulate their education.-Lack of evidence for causal relationships btw strategy use and SLA success.-Not enough research on self-regulation & how it affects SLA.We don't have empirically evidence that this is true.STRATEGY TRAINING:Research has not really Proven the effectiveness of training,particularly in the long run. Waste of time as ss naturally transfers them...PREPARATION-PRESENTATION-EXPOSITION+PRACTICE+EVALUATION: strategy training circle.How? Integration of Strategies in teaching programs?*CALLA model-cognitive Academic Lg. Learning Approach: Explicit strategic teaching + content area Instruction + academic language development. (Unless you know Everything, what you need is to Think) “The good language learner cannot be described in terms of a single Set of strategies but rather through the ability to understand and Develop a personal set of effective strategies” but even if it is so,we could help ss in discovering & developing their own strategies.2vws: 1)Research has not really proven the effectiveness of training, Particularly in the long run.Waste of time as ss naturally transfer Them.The problem is the poor linguistic competence to use them Effectively. (Lack of knowledge of the language, not lack of Strategies)2)Strategy-based teaching. Can And should be taught because…-Contribute to the main goal: Communicative competence-Allow learners to become autonomous (constructivist approach)-Are problem-oriented: helpful both in lack Of confidence and competence: success leads to motivation-Easy to Assimilate and make automatic or subconscious-Are flexible (adapt to Individuals who should observe, abandon and create their own Strategies.-Expand the role of the teacher-Can be used in and outside The classroom.STRATEGIES TRAINING CYCLE (adapted from Macaro)When Teaching strategies to students these are the steps we should take Into account:Preparation,raise ss'awareness (questionaries,discovering & discussions).STRATEGY INVENTORY FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING (SILL)-Sample Items for each of the six scales. Mem.S “I use a combination of Sounds and images to remember the new word.”Cognitive.S “I look For patterns in the new language”Compensation S.(A matter of Frequency)… is not quality rather than quantity what Matters?Preparation: Raise ss’awareness (Qs, discovering and Discussions); Presentation: explore menu if strategies available and Model them; Expansion: Show how to transfer strategies to other tasks And how to combine different strategies for a task; Practice: Ss Select and try out strategies with help of T;Evaluation: Ss evaluate Their success with help of T; Self-monitoring: Ss set themselves new Goals, add or abandon strategies, assess their own success: AUTONOMY.