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Module 3

1 - What is the earth's axis?
It is a straight line, imaginary, passing through the Earth passing through the center gives way around this line produces the rotation of our planet. The cutoff points of this line with the Earth's surface are the poles (North and South).

2 - What do you call the participants movements of Earth's axis?
· Precession
· Nutation

3 - What is Ecuador?
Great circle perpendicular to the axis of the Earth that divides this into two parts called hemispheres. Hemisphere North Pole (the northern hemisphere or Boreal) Hemisphere and the South Pole (South or Southern Hemisphere).

4 - What are the parallels?
Smaller circles parallel to Ecuador, whose length decreases as we approach the poles.

5 - What are meridians?
Circles passing through the poles.

6 - What are the geographic coordinates?
They are numbers that allow us to locate any point on the earth's crust.

7 - What are the geographic coordinates?
· Latitude
· Length

8 - What is the latitude?
Is the distance from a point on the Earth's crust to Ecuador. It is measured in degrees of meridian.
· A point above the Ecuador: North.
· A point below the Ecuador: South.

9 - What is the length?
Distance from a point on the Earth's crust to the principal meridian, so the distance is measured in degrees of Ecuador.
· A point to the right of the Prime Meridian: Longitude East
· A Point to the left of the Prime Meridian: Longitude West

10 - How much are the latitude and longitude of Logrono?
42 º 30 'N, 2 º 30' W, approximately.

11 - What is the latitude of Ecuador?
0 º

12 - What is the latitude of the poles?
90 º N and 90 º S

13 - What is the origin or primary meridian?

14 - What is the direction of rotation of the Earth?
It is from west to east.

15 - How fast is in km / h, a place in Ecuador on Earth, considering that this is only its rotation around its axis?
Speed of 1,666 km / h.

16 - What is the travel speed of the Earth?
30 km / s

1666 Express 17 mph in km / s.
0.46 km / s.

18-Express 30 km / s in km / h.
108,000 km / h

19 - What are the Tropics?
Two parallel distance of Ecuador 23 º 27 '.
· There's one in the Northern Hemisphere: Tropic of Cancer.
· And there is another in the Southern Hemisphere: Tropic of Capricorn.

20 - What are the polar circles?
Two parallel 23 º 27'de distant poles.
· There's one in the Northern Hemisphere: Arctic Circle.
· And there is another in the Southern Hemisphere: Antarctic Circle.

21 - What are the equinoxes?
There are two seasons (Spring and Autumn) in which the number of daylight hours and the hours of darkness are equal (12 hours light and 12 hours of darkness.

22 - When is the equinox?
Eq. Spring: 20 to 21 March.
Eq. Fall: 22 or 23 September.

23 - What are the solstices?
There are two seasons (Summer and Winter) that is given the highest inequality between daylight and dark hours.
In summer more light or longer day, the sun over the Tropic of Cancer.
• In Winter darker or shorter day, the sun's rays on the Tropic of Capricorn.

24 - When does the solstice occur?
Summer Solstice: 21 or 22 June.
Winter Solstice: 21 or Dec. 22.

25 - What is the ecliptic?
It is the ellipse-shaped line that describes Earth around the Sun

26 - What is the ellipse?
Curved line, which closed smooth points satisfy the condition that the sum of its distances from two points called foci, is a constant.

27 - What is the angle of 23 degrees 27 '?
It is the angle between the plane of the Earth Ecuador and another containing the ecliptic plane.

28 - What are the climate zones on Earth?
Torrid 1.Zona or Guinea.
North Temperate 2.Zona.
South Temperate 3.Zona.
4.Zona Arctic.
Antarctic Polar 5.Zona.

29-Set borders climate zones on Earth.
Torrid 1.Zona Earth: Between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
North Temperate 2.Zona: From the Arctic Circle and Tropic of Cancer.
South Temperate 3.Zona: Between Antarctic Circle and Tropic of Capricorn.
4.Zona Arctic: From the Arctic Circle and North Pole.
Antarctic Polar 5.Zona: Between Antarctic Circle and South Pole.

30-Placing the polar circles by the value of their latitudes. Get the answer mathematically.
· Arctic Circle: 66 ° 33'N
· Antarctic Circle: 66 ° 33'S

31 - How much is the angle of terrestrial arc either temperate zones?
43 º 6 '

32 - What is perihelion?
It is a point of an orbit of a planet, and that is the point at which the planet is closest to the Sun

33 - What is the aphelion?
It is a point of an orbit of a planet, and that is the point at which the planet is farthest from the Sun

34 - What is the perigee?
It is the point of the orbit of a star (sun, moon, planets, ...) located closest to the Earth.

35 - What is apogee?
It is the point of the orbit of a star (Sun, Moon, Earth, ...) that is farthest away from Earth.

36 - What is the relationship between Earth's perihelion and perigee of the Sun? What is the relationship between Earth's aphelion and apogee of the sun?
That distance between the Sun and Earth is the same.
As in the previous response, the distance between the Sun and Earth is the same.

37 - What is the speed of light if one hundredth of a second covers 3,000 km?
300,000 km / s

38 - What is the value of the speed of light in km / s? To what point is represented at the speed of light?
299,792 '5 km / s.

39 - How long does it take to reach Earth, sunlight? The average distance between the Sun and the Earth is 150 million km.
8 minutes and 20 seconds.
40 - What is a light year?
It is a unit distance. Is the distance traveled by light during one year.

41 - What is an astronomical unit?
Is the average distance between Earth and the Sun, which is 150 million km.

42 - What is a parsec?
1 pc = 3'26 ly

It is the distance from a point in establishing an angle of 1 between the Earth and the Sun

43-The planet Sedna is about 13,000 million miles from the sun How much is this distance in astronomical units (AU)?
87 AU.

44-Calculate the distance in light years that separates us from the star Vega, or Alpha Lyra, knowing that the value of the distance in miles is 257.5 × 1012. Details: one year = 31,556,926 seconds; '5 c = 299,792 km / s.
27'2 light years.

45 - What is an eon?
Worth a thousand million years. 1,000,000,000 years.

46 - What is the age of the Sun?
Is 5 eons. 5,000,000,000 years.

47 Table-summary of the seasons.
Photocopy A.

48 - What three factors account for the heat of summer or the cold of winter?
1.Distancia of the Earth-Sun
2.Duración the day.
3.Dirección or inclination of the sun.

49 - Which of the three factors that explain the heat of summer or the cold of winter has a major influence?
The direction or inclination of the sun.

50 - How does the distance from Earth to the sun in the winter cold or summer heat? What mistake must not be committed?
The closer we are from the Sun more heat and higher temperatures. The farther from the Sun and lower temperature colder.
Do not say:
That the heat of summer is due to the approach of the sun or the cold of winter is due to the remoteness of Tierra del Sol
51-Make a summary table of the motions of the Earth and its consequences.
Movement around TierraVelocidadTiempo employee completaObservaciones (consequences) Translating around the sun
30 km/s1 year = 365 DIASLE seasons (in temperate zones rotation on its axis 1666 km / h (For a point in Ecuador) 1 day = 24 hours a day (light) and night (dark) 52 - What if the earth's axis were not tilted?
There would be no seasons and have a constant Spring and Summer.

53-In the Book of Enoch states that the year has 364 days. Discuss this fact.
Would it be possible that when Enoch lived in the year rather than 365 days, serious 364.
The Sun would have more material and consequently the Universal Law of Gravity Sun Earth attract more strongly, and the Earth would be closer to the sun, and that orbit would have a length less than now.

54 - How does the length of day in the cold of winter or the heat of summer?
Has a logic that the greater the number of hours of incidence of sunlight on Earth, there is greater heat input, and the temperatures were raised further in the earth's surface and lower layers of the atmosphere. And so the contrary, in winter.
But this argument also is not accurate, we should also look at the situation with solar lighting. The time they are lit the south pole and north pole and who are also in darkness. Its light is 6 months and another 6 of darkness.

55 - What is the situation with solar lighting (or lack thereof) in areas near the poles?
In the summer, the sun is directly above and perpendicular solar radiation reaching the Earth and radiation are concentrated. In winter, the sun's rays get very steep.

56 - How does the direction (or bending) of sunlight in the cold of winter or the heat of summer?
Given the inclination of Earth's axis, for about 6 months sunlight is giving a pole, while the other is in darkness. And the next 6 months backwards.

57-Examples of simple experiments to understand the influence in the cold of winter or the summer heat of the three factors mentioned.
A candle:
· We put his hand over the flame at different distances to feel the heat. (distance)
· We place the hand for a minute, then means to see the calorific value. (duration)
· Place the hand in different positions. (Tilt)

58 - What do you know of Eratosthenes of Cyrene?
Facts about this author:
· Was an astronomer.
· Student of Arquimides.
· His contemporaries called him â (Beta).
• In math is remembered for the sieve of Eratosthenes (Knowing if a number is prime or not).
· Was director of the Library of Alexandria.
· Know the size of Earth, so his fame, with a stick.
· Was also a geographer, historian and writer.
· Died aged 80, around 300 BC, was blind and chose to die voluntarily stopped eating.

Module 4
Physical and chemical phenomena (I)

Features Bunsen burner
Shortly cerradoAire open air calorific heat (700 degrees C) High calorific value (1,200 ° C) Color Light Blue Llama Llama amarillaLlama light luminosaLlama not sound SilenciosaRuidosa

Common salt and sand
1-List the utensils needed to make the practice separation of the components of a mixture of salt and sand.
· Spoon-Spatula
· Mortar
· Specimen
· Beaker 250 ml.
· Glass rod
· Regular funnel
· Erlenmeyer
· Porcelain
· Base Support
· Support bar nut
· Washer
· Asbestos Cloth
· Lighter

2-Describe the practical separation of the components of a mixture of salt and sand.
1-We take two tablespoons of salt and two of sand.
2-are placed in the mortar and pressed, or crushed, and we will make the mixture.
3-We take a test tube and fill with water to 60 ml.
4-With 40 ml. We will begin to dissolve the mixture in the glass.
6-With the funnel and a filter that will place in the flask will begin filtering.
7-sand grains to be larger in diameter than the pores of the paper will remain in the filter, unlike the salt to pass through the pores of the paper.
8-Quedara saline solution.
9-The sand that has been in the filter let it dry.
10-With salt solution, post it on the porcelain.
11-The capsule saline post the chicken wire with asbestos and warm.
12-The water was evaporated and the salt to remain in the capsule in porcelain.

3-In practice separation of the components of a mixture of salt and sand that we can produce a loss of salt by crackling, what does this mean?
In the absence of water and continue heating the salt, this started to jump out of porcelain and while this is the case will be heard a noise like the crackling of wood when burned.

4 - How to prepare the filter paper to place in the funnel when you are performing a regular filter?
1-moistened (with a few drops)
2-The tight against the walls of the funnel and acquires a conical shape.

5-accident in the lab number 1. (Drawing)
· Hairs too long of the blonde girl.
· Unscrew a plug without removing the current.
· Water on the floor.
· Chemical in food packaging.
· Test tube oriented essayist.
· Test tube with excess fluid.
· Boxes in the output path of the laboratory.
· Test instruments near the edge of the table.
• A girl playing.
· Pesos a hazard of falling over a glass container.
· Cortina.
• A girl taking a liquid too high.
· Cock open and liquid falling to the flask.
· No one attending a test tube that is in the burner.
· Hand near the burner on.
· Child about to throw a bottle with his elbow.
• The electrical box should be more secluded.
· The posters of electricity should be more naked.
· Chicos very close to a trial.
· Garrafas that should be kept in a separate room.
• In the cabinet there should be books by chemicals.

6-accident in the lab number 2. (Drawing)
· Tables dirty.
· Playing a plug with wet hands.
· Experiment on a stool.
· Poster with a detached corner and about to burn.
· Blowing a product.
· Browse bulk.
· Upload your product on a closet without help.
Excessive boat · products on a shelf.
· Backpack subject to a bench, which is the reverse.
· Food near toxic products.
· Rack near the edge of the table.
· Products uncovered.
· Heating of acetone.
· Mercury spill.
· Cortina.
· Draws near explosive mixture.
· Child music with the headphones.
· Bottles of propane.
• The teacher does not know what happens in class.
• Many hands in an assembly.

Crystallization of Copper Sulphate
7 - What is the formula of copper sulfate pentahydrate?
CuSO 4. 5 H 2 O

8 - What shape is the crystal faces of copper sulphate pentahydrate?
Rhomboid shaped.

9-An important use of CuSO4.
To end the mushrooms in the fields.

10 - What material is needed to make the practice of crystallization of copper sulfate?
· Spoon-Spatula
· Mortar
· Beaker 600 ml.
· Glass rod
· Thermometer
· Regular funnel
· Cristalizador
· Base support (2)
· Bar holder (2)
· Nut (3)
· Washer (2)
· Asbestos Cloth
· Lighter

11-Describe the practice of crystallization of copper sulfate.
1-Putting copper sulphate in a mortar.
2-fragment as possible.
3-Fill the glass up to 500 ml.
4-The glass we put it to boil and add the copper sulphate.
5-It is getting a strong blue color and the thermometer reaches 75 º C.
6-proceed to filter.
7-lasting and let stand 2 or 3 weeks.

12-Visually, what is the difference between hydrated copper sulfate and copper sulfate anhydrous?
Anhydrous copper sulfate is a white, but when crystallized from aqueous solution forms a blue solid of formula CuSO 4. 5 H 2 O water molecules forming part of the crystal.

13 - What is a hydrate?
A solid compound that has incorporated water molecules to its structure.

14-make two hydrates and say their names.
Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate CuSO 4. 5 H 2 O
Ferric chloride hexahydrate FeCl. 6 H 2 O

31 - What does the law of Mitscherlich?
Isoforms compounds have similar chemical composition.

32 - What constitutes the isomorphism?
Chemicals are different but of similar structure, which can crystallize in the same crystalline form interfacial angles and axial relations at best not differ significantly.

Physical and chemical phenomena (II)
1 - Why not be described glass as solid matter?
Because it has melting point. When we provide heat to the glass becomes plastic. The heated glass is a viscous liquid.

2 - What is the secret of successful work with glass?
In warm enough.

3 - What precaution should be taken in handling the hot glass?
Not be distinguished visually hot glass of cold glass and can burn.

4-To cut a first glass tube using a triangular file. How do we proceed with it?
The glass tube is left on the table and with the left hand (if we're clever) we hold. With the right is done with the file a notch in the transverse direction. This notch should not surround the tube.

5-To make an indentation in a glass tube used a lime How should the motion be filed?
Do not use as a seesaw (swing movement), should only be done in a way, because if the glass shatters.

6-Once the notch in a glass tube, how and where to place your hands to break the tube? Make a drawing explanatory.
On the opposite side to the notch, we put the two big toes and the rest of the hand holding the tube.

7 - In what sense should be applied to forces from a glass tube? Make a drawing explanatory.
We force as if we bend the tube leaving the notch on the convex side.

8-To the glass tube from the force used should be weak. What should be done in the case of not getting from the tube by applying a moderate force?
Take the file again and make a groove in the notch deeper, and not forcing the glass.

9 - How do you cut a glass tube?
From question 4 to question 8.
10 - What is the killing of stretch marks?
It involves heating the freshly cut end of the glass with the Bunsen burner so that the glass is rounded ends.

11 - Why should carefully apply heat to the end of a freshly cut pipe in order to kill streaks?
Because only the end of the tube, which is heated, you can begin to close and change its diameter.

12 - Why does the killing of stretch marks?
· For the person who is manipulating the glass is not cut.
· For the glass tube, in a montage in which we are using rubber stoppers, these are not splitting with the grooves of the glass.

13 killed in operations of stretch marks, stretch bend a tube or require the application of heat. What should be done with the tube while heat it?
We go by turning the tube.

14 - How do you bend a glass tube?
Heater is not only a point in the tube but also in an area of about 3 cm. Will throw the ends to get the angle you want.

15 - What facts indicate that the situation is favorable to proceed to bend a glass tube by applying heat?
· That the flame has a yellow color due to the hot glass.
• The tube buckles in the area that we are applying the heat.

16 - How to stretch a glass tube?
Heat the tube in an area of about 3 cm., And let the tyrant of the ends until we see that we are heating the area is becoming increasingly narrow and long.

There will be an area that forms a narrow being called a dropper.

If the narrowing is very thin capillary is called.

Determination of melting point
17 - What is a chemical formula?
It is a way of expressing the composition of a substance.

18 - What is the condensed formula of p-dichlorobenzene?
C 6 H 4 Cl 2
Condensed formula: It tells us that the composition of the substance.

19 Paradichlorobenzene also named as 1.4 dichlorobenzene. Why? Explain using a structural formula of a substance.
The structural formula shows the structure of the composition.

20-paradichlorobenzene Properties.
· Is a white substance.
· Can be used to kill insects.

21-In determining the melting point of p-dichlorobenzene, why does not matter that the product tube is completely submerged in water?
Because it dissolves in water.

22-In determining the melting point of p-dichlorobenzene, what value was obtained in the group of which you were part?
62 º C

Reaction of hydrochloric acid with ammonia
23-Principle of communicating vessels.
At number 1 single water enters the tank A, with the stopcock closed. Only full paragraph A, the B is empty.

In the No. 2 single water enters the container A, but this time with the stopcock open, so water flows into container B, leaving the water in the 2 containers, at the same height.

24 In practice the reaction of hydrochloric acid with ammonia were used pipettes. How came with them?
Pipette associating a color to an item.

25-In the practice of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and ammonia, how samples were achieved both substances without risk?
HCl: Specimen.
NH 3: pipette.
Distinguishing the containers of each item.

26 Hydrochloric acid, HCl, reacts with ammonia, NH 3 to give ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl, a white substance. Write the chemical equation for this reaction.
HCl + NH 3 NH 4 Cl --------

27-The molecular weight of a substance is calculated by adding the atomic weights of chemical elements that comprise it. Knowing that the atomic weights of hydrogen, chlorine and nitrogen are worth, respectively, 1, 35'5, and 14, determine the molecular weights of hydrochloric acid, ammonia and ammonium chloride.
Pm HCl: 1 + 35'5 = 36'5
Pm NH 3: 14 + 1 · 3 = 17
Pm NH 4 Cl: 14 + 1 • 4 + 35'5 = 53'5
28 - How do you calculate the molecular weight of a substance?
By adding the atomic weights of chemical elements that form the substance.

29-gram molecule or mole of a substance is a number of grams of a substance identical to its molecular weight, How much is a mole of ...?
a) HCl: 36'5
b) NH 3: 17
c) NH 4 Cl: 53'5

30 - What is a gram molecule or mole of a substance?
It is a number of grams of a substance identical to its molecular weight.

32-State the stoichiometry of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and ammonia.
Stoichiometry: quantities of substances in the reaction.
36'5 g of hydrochloric acid react with 17 g of ammonia to yield 53'5 g of ammonium chloride.

33-In the reaction of hydrochloric acid with ammonia, Why is the white ring closer to the ammonium chloride-impregnated paper impregnated with hydrochloric of ammonia?
Hydrochloric acid molecules are more than twice as heavy as those of ammonia and move slower.

34-ammonia molecules move faster than hydrochloric acid. How much more? How do you determine the value of the ratio Amoníaco / V hydrochloric acid?

35-Discuss the mathematical calculations that are performed in practice the reaction of hydrochloric acid with ammonia.
Calculations seen in previous years.

Reaction of hydrochloric acid with various metals
36-In the reactions of hydrochloric acid with metals, what effect does the addition of water to test tubes containing metals?
Hydrochloric acid - Water: Reduces the concentration or diluted, and the hydrogen produced will be discussed in a bubble.

37-In practice the reaction of hydrochloric acid with different metals, which ones react?
· Zinc
· Aluminum
· Iron
38-Write the chemical equations of metals reacting with hydrochloric acid in the relevant practice.
············ HCl Zn + Zn + Cl 2 + H 2(follows) ·············· Zn + 2 HCl
Al + HCl ············· Al Cl 3 + H 2(follows) Cl ·············· ······ 2Al + 6H ········ 2 Al Cl 3 + 3H 2(follows)
············ Fe Fe + HCl Cl 2 + H 2(follows) Cl ··············· Fe + 2H

39-In practice the reaction of hydrochloric acid with different metals, which ones did not react?
· Lead
· Copper

40 - What are exothermic reactions?
Those in which heat is released.

41 - Are any of the reactions of hydrochloric acid with metals may be classified as exothermic? What?
The 3 of Zinc, Aluminum and Iron.

Hydrochloric acid
48 - What is the relationship between hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride?
It's a formula for two names, the hydrochloric acid and aqueous hydrogen chloride.

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