1. In the 70’s and 80’s Ms started to cooperate on FP.
2. The European Political Cooperation (EPC) was the started of a common FP and was recognized at the Title III of the SEA (single European act).
3. But the Title III was not added to the EEC Treaty because MS did not want the legislative processes to apply to FP. So the EPC was voluntary.
4. 5 factors provoked a change:
- The end of the Cold War, when nuclear and military capacity became less important and economic strength and geographical position became more important.
- The German reunification, Germany then pressed the MS to recognize Croatia and Slovenia and then to accept the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
- The Gulf War demonstrated that EPC would always be inefficient if Security and Defence policy continued to be separated from FP. Because the European diplomatic reactions and the sanctions imposed were well coordinated and were joined by all MS, but each one reacted without coordination on the military field.
- The EU’s response to the breakup of Yugoslavia and the hostilities in the Balkans was inadequately prepared, developed and mobilized.
- The advance due to the Treaties (advance which was an answer provoked by the factors above). It was a change, but the FP kept its intergovernmental nature.
* Maastricht Treaty: stablished the COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP), what became the union’s second pillar. Intergovernmental decision-making base; unanimity in decisions; introduced the wish of walking towards a common defence policy.
* Amsterdam Treaty: introduced QMV for some policy implementation decisions; also a “constructive abstention” which allowed to a MS not to apply any European decision on this field; Security Policy was advanced due to the “Petersberg tasks” which focused on crisis management, peace keeping and humanitarian tasks. Also created the CFSP High Representative and a Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit.
* Nice Treaty: Enabled Ms to go forward with an initiative for the implementation for joint actions and common positions BUT WITHOUT military or defence implications.
* Lisbon Treaty: replaced two authorities for just one. The HR for the CFSP and the Commissioner forExternal Relations became the HR of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
Nevertheless, we can not say that there is a cohesive and coherent European FP.