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Nature is A central topic to many different literary works, an a particularly important One in American literature, but of course different authors approach it from Different perspectives.

Jack London: Different approach to Nature. A Physiological approach. Nature in relation to society. Laws of nature control Individual choice and free will.

Henry David Thoreau: Nature is the place where we can Find and be ourselves. Nature does not put any pressure on us to behave in a Certain way or conform to social standards (Same approach as Sarah Orne Jewett)

Sarah Orne Jewett: Nature as a relief from Civilization. Nature is represented as a transforming agent, because it is able To change people's minds. It keeps you in touch with the selfhood. Nature can Evoke powerful emotions. Sylvia undergoes a transforming experience upon Contemplation of the entire forest when she clumbs up a tree. She decides not To reveal the location of the bird the hunter's is pursuing.

Nathaniel Hawthorne: The same approach to nature as Thoreau and Sarah Orne Jewett. Nature as a relief from society. Nature as a way To escape from social standards, where we can be ourselves and live freely.

Hawthorne And Thoreau have the same approach to Nature; it is seen as a relief form Social standards, because it does not put any pressure on us  to behave in a certain way. Both have a Romantic view of Nature, as pure and a spiritual source of renewal and also, as A way to escape from civilization. Similarly, Sarah Orne Jewett sees nature as A relief from civilization and it can evoke powerful emotions. However, the Approach of Nature in her literature is formative, because it is able to change People's minds and to keep you in touch with the selfhood. While these three Authors have a more romantic approach to nature, Jack London has a more Physiological approach. Nature in Jack London's writings is seen as a force That control individual choice and free will, being thus  related to society.

Jack London: in Law of Nature, an old man Is abandoned to his fate in the snow. He will not be able to survive because of The extreme conditions. He still has a stoic mentality: death is not that Terrible, he is resigned, patiently awaits death, (he says to himself things Like “it is well, all men must die”), because he cannot control the laws of Nature. In To Build a Fire, however, the protagonist does not accept fate As the first one. He tries to survive no matter what, not accepting that he Cannot defy nature.

Henry David Thoreau: in Walden, Thoreau lives near the pond Walden, in a cabin Made by himself for 2 years and being able to survive with the basic needs. Nature Is portrayed as an autobiographical account, a journey of spiritual discovery And a manual for self-reliance.  Thoreau  wants to show That life in nature is the life of the free man who aims to free himself from The slavery of industrial society.

Sarah Orne Jewett: In The White Heron, Sylvia undergoes a transforming experience Upon contemplation of the entire forest when she clumbs up a tree in the quest Of the heron. She therefore decides not to reveal the location of the bird the Hunter's is pursuing. After contemplating the forest, she empathizes more with Nature as a whole (including the heron) than with the hunter, which is the Portrayal of civilization. We might say that contemplation of nature changes Her into a different person.

Nathaniel Hawthorne: In The Scarlet Letter, when Hester is rejected by society, She exiles herself in the wilderness. It is there, far from the norms of Society, that she can feel free. Thus, in The Scarlet Letter, Nature represents Liberation from an oppressing society. Moreover, Hester Prynne reconnects with The spirit of nature, which enablesher to rekindle her relationship with Dimmesdale. It is this spirit of nature that is so powerfully embodied in Hester's daughter Pearl.

CONCLUSION

Nature is One of the outstanding features of the American literature, and we can see that It is approach in many different ways by different authors. One the one hand, We can see that Thoreau and Hawthorne have the same approach to nature,  as a way of liberation of the oppressing Society. Similarly, Sarah Orne Jewett portrayes nature as a way of escaping From the civilization but also, as a power of changing the individual's mind, By experience its magnificience. On the other hand, Jack London has a very Different approach to nature; it is seen as a force that controls individual Choice and free will, not as a biological entity.

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