1. The French Revolution: It was a Period of violent political and social changes which brought the abolition of Absolute monarchy and the end of the estate society. It lasted from 1789 to 1804.
-Causes Of the Revolution:
>The Enlightenment influence: the Bourgeoisie, the popular classes wanted a society where the French subjects Were free and equal under the law.
>Political crisis: The Estates General (meeting of the estates of the realm) had an unfair voting system: each Estate had one vote; the clergy and the nobility voted together to keep their Privileges, the third estate, the mayority of the population, never could win.
>The economic crisis. The French Government went to bankrupt; Louis XVI minister tried to improve the country Finances by two ways:
-Increasing the taxes
-Making nobility and clergy pay taxes.
>Social crisis: by the end of 18th Century all the country was discontented with the crown:
-Nobility and clergy refused to pay Taxes, they wanted to maintain the traditional privileges.
-The upper and middle classes wanted to Abolish the absolute monarchy and the estate system because it didn't allow Them to participate in government affairs.
-The peasantry suffered economic Problems due to higher taxes, poor harvest and higher rents.