Law 19983 on

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Consolidated Democracy v. Transitional Democracy

  • Democracy: regime that involves the selection of government officials through free and fair elections, a balance between what the people want, the protection of the interest of minorities, and constitutional limitations on government

    • 7 Principles:

  1. Free and fair elections

  2. Competitive elections that allow opposition parties to form and participate

  3. Government-developed policies based upon procedures that guarantee due process, transparency in decision-making, and accountability of elected officials.

  4. Political rights and civil rights that are possessed by all citizens

  5. An independent judiciary that upholds all civil liberties of citizens and oversees the rule of law.

  6. Elected government officials who exercise supreme authority over the government (civilian authority exists over the military and private power holders.)

  7. Agreement that conflicts will be resolved peacefully according to legal procedures and without violence (rule of law.)

  • Consolidated Democracy: regimes in which there is relatively consistent adherence to the seven principles over an extended period of time. It is very unlikely to be broken down and replaced by a nondemocratic system.

    • A democracy is consolidated once it can endure various threats, such as an attempted coup or a closely contested election like the 2006 presidential election in Mexico

    • Example: Britain, US, Japan, France, etc.

  • Transitional Democracy:

  • May also be called a hybrid regime, semiauthoritrarian, semidemocratic, etc  

  • Regimes in which elements of democracy are integrated into an otherwise authoritarian regime

  • Political authorities are corrupt, control the media, and use illegal methods to undermine political opposition while st

    • Example: Russia, Mexico, and Nigeria

      • Many developing nations

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Law 19983 on