There are three primary sources of Islamic law. Out of these primary sources, Quran is considered as the first primary or fundamental source of Islamic Law. The Quran is the revealed Book of God. The basic source of Islamic Law is divine revelation. This has been given to us by the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) in two forms. One is the direct words of God (The Quran), other is indirect words of God ( The Sunnah). These two forms of revealtion are called roots of Islamic Law. It is the only Book of God which has not been distorted as He Himself undertook its safety.
The term “Quran” is derived from the Arabic word “Qura’a”. The Term Quran is used in two meanings.
(a) As participle (To Read), and
(b) As an Object ( a thing which is read).
Both these meanings techically are attributed to the Quran
The Holy Quran was revealed approximately in twenty-three years according to needs of the peoples, Eighty-sex (86) Surahs were revealed in Makkah, so that these Surahs were called Makkahi and twenty-eight (28) Surahs were revealed in Medina, so that these Surahs were called Madani. The first revelation comes to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) when he was forty years of age.
Following verse of Surah “Al-Alaq” was revealed on him.
“Read in the name of the Lord, who create the man from a clot”.
Names of Quran
There are 55 alternative names of the Holy Quran such as;
(i) Al-Kitab;(ii) Al-Furqan;(iii) Al-Noor;(iv) Al-Mobeen;
Compilation of Quran
The Holy Quran was completely compiled in written form during the life time of Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him).
(i) “We are responsible for its compilation”. (75:17)
(ii) “Only the clean should touch it”. (56:79)
Salient features of Quran
(i) Unlimited (ii) Comprehensive(iii) Absolute(iv) Unconditional(v) Dynamic
(vi) Organic(vii) Duty of Protection
Contents of the Holy Quran
Following are some contents of the Holy Quran
Quran narrates the stories of the past prophet and people andthe punishment inflicted on the wicked in the past. For instance, the story of Hazrat Musa, Hazrat Abrahim, Hazrat Isa, Hazrat Yousef and the people of the cave etc.
(b) Seen and Unseen
The Holy Quran lets us know about the seen and unseen, Allah, the Angels, the life after death, Day of Judgement, Paradise and Hell and so forth.
(c) Create of universe
The Holy Quran gives account of the Heaven, earth and of man himself.
(d) Code of life
The Holy Quran a complete code of behaviour good, injections, and teachings in regards to social, lawful, economic and political matters.
Ahkam in the Holy Quran
Two main categories of Hukm have been classified by the Muslim Jurists;
To create an obligation for comission or omission of an act.
Hukm WadiTo Provide criteriion for judging whether an act perform is valid or not.
ConclusionTo conclude, it can be stated that Holy Quran is consisted of such directions and commands of God, which are indiscriminately same for all portions of human society and all regions of the world. The reality is that no other book has so far provided and interpreted laws in such definite and impartial manner in which the Holy Quran has provided and interpreted the law. Due to these features and above-mentioned ones, the Holy Quran is considered as first primary or fundamental source of Islamic Law.