Law 19983 on

Classified in History

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Napoleon declared himself Emperor of france in 1804. Domestic policy: he established the Civil Code:- a set of laws that applied equally to all citizens. It introduced new legal concepts, such as civil marriage, divorce, adoption and state education. 

International policy: napoleonb expanded his empire as a result of numerous military victories over other european powers.
Napoleon defeated all of the countries that were allied against France except great britain. His power began to decline because he had to divide his forces between two very distant front, Spain and the russian empire. Napoleon was finnally dfeated in 1815 at the battle of waterloo.

Main consequences of the french revolution and the napoleonic empire was the crisis and ultimate disintegration of the ancien regime. Political changes: New forms of government such as constituional monarchies and republics were established. New constitutions were based on popular sovereignty, and the separation of powers. New constitutions established limited male suffrage and civil rights. Elections led to the emergence of political groups. Economic changes: all citizens now had to pay tax and contribute to the state's expenses. This included the nobility and the clergy. New lags guaranteed private property rights. Free trade was also guaranteed, which benefited middle-class merchants. Social changes: Once the clergy and nobility had lost the privileges, they had enjoyed under the ancien regime, the estates system ceased to exist.

The spanish war of independence began on 2 may 1808, when the people of madrid rose up agains the french occupation. During this war, two important processes were taking place at the same time, the war itself, and a political revolution. The war: spanish won some battles such as the battle of bailen. Cadiz was the only city that did not fall to the french. They were defeated in 1813 thanks to support from british led by the duke of wellington, and to groupos of spanish citizens who carried out guerilla attacks on the french forces. Political revolution: Joseph bonaparte was the head of the french government in spain, he impossed the bayonne constitution. He had some spanish supporters, who were called afrancesados. The central council represented Fernando 7, it coordinated local and provincial councils. For the first time, spanish poeple had their own representatives.

Cortes of cadiz (19 march 1812) became known as the first spanish constitution, this was a victory of enlightenment ideas over the ancien regime. 
constitution of 1812, constitutional monarchy as the form of government. Popylar sovereignty with limited male suffrage. Catholicism as the state religion, the separation of powers into three branches executive legislative and judicial. Guaranteed rights and freedoms including equality under the law, the right to privcy, freedom of the press, and the prihibition of torture.

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