Dual Federalism:each governmnet is independent and exercises its power without the assistance of other governmnets.
Doctrine of Nullification:its adherents believed they could nullify laws that they considered unconstitutional.
Gibbon v. Ogden:the Supreme Court,under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall,ruled in favor of Gibbons.The court broadly difined commerce to include not only transportation of goods but also the means of transportation.
Federal Income Tax.
The rise of the national government to prominence above the states was made possoble in part by the institution of the federal income tax.
16th Amandment:(1913)provided for the federal government to tax per personal incomes. By taking the income of the American people,Congress gained access to a large source of revenue.
Great Depression and World War II:provided the federal government with the opportunity to extend its taxing power in the name of aiding the state.