Competitive Strategy and Industrial Analysis
1.What is STRATEGY?
Action Plan that has management to position the company in its market arena, competing successfully, satisfying customers and achieving good business performance Alfred Chandler: The determination of goals and core long-term objectives in a company, together with the adoption of courses of action and distribution of resources to achieve these purposes.
James B. Quinn: The model or plan integrating major goals, policies and actions of a chain organization into a coherent whole.
William F. Glueck: a unified, comprehensive and integrated, designed to ensure that it achieves the basic objectives of the company.
2.Cuáles are the stages of strategic management?
a.FORMULACIÓN: mission, SWOT, alternative strategies, concrete, new business, how to allocate resources, extensions and diversifications, opening international markets, and so on. Commitment: products, markets, resources and ICTs.
b.IMPLEMENTACIÓN (active stage) annual objectives, devise policies, motivate, assign resources. Culture and solid organizational structure. The ability to relate to others is extremely important to carry out the strategy. C.EVALUACIÓN: review internal and external factors, performance measures and implement corrective actions.
3.The what constitutes intuition and analysis?
Systemic process, logical and objective for the TD.
QUANTITATIVE vrs CUALITITATIVA Information and Incentidumbre
Intuition: past experiences and judgments are important.
I already decided on, so do not bother me with facts ... it is more intuitively manage, but ignorantly.
The success of the strategic management depends on proper integration of intuition and analysis.
4.The What is adapting to change?
The search for adaptation to Pi. Open Borders ...
Where am I? Retrospect and situational diagnosis: Definition and Business Analysis (SWOT)
WHERE I WANT TO BE? Vision, mission and principles: Philosophy: Vision (compass) and mission (map), values and principles (paradigms)
HOW TO DO IT?
Strategies and Plans (HOW?)
- Policies and procedures
- Financial Plan
- Plan of Action and Control: Goals, tactics and activities
5.How do should be the strategy?
The strategy must be adequately flexible: By nature, markets are mutable. Therefore it is not possible to plan a strategy and comply to the letter without having the need to adjust some of its points. (Reaction - Adaptability).
... Best viewed as a combination of actions planned and immediate adaptive responses to the events of the newly developed industry and competition. That is, the essential element of any business is the need and it is outside the company.
6.De establish what it is but we put it into practice properly?
... The administrative ability is to devise the necessary steps for the strategy, execute it efficiently and produce good results.
Process Reengineering - Total Quality - Just in Time - Balanced Scorecard - others.
7.Qué should ensure the company?
Investment Strategy = = Adjusted Present Value
(financial concepts such as support for strategic decision making) Instead of focusing on the past performance of an enterprise (ROE), management should ensure that investment returns are sustainable in the future, but that has served the strategy identified.
8.Cuáles are the barriers to effective implementation of the strategy?
Barriers to effective implementation:
Assigning Responsibilities (10%)
9.Cuáles are effective mechanisms for implementation?
Mechanisms for effective implementation:
Resource Allocation (3M - 6.5% of sales in IO)
Standards and Measures (which can not be measured does not exist)
Inculcation of values (3M - Rule of 15%)
10. What is achieved with Globalization as a determinant of the Strategy?
b.Carrera to achieve greater calidadCOMPETITIVIDAD INTERNATIONAL
c. Lower price
d.Mejor at product differentiation - ID
e.Consumidores more sophisticated-Innovation
f.Consumidores more demanding-Tech
g.Gustos and refined preferences
A new economic order entails radical innovation in processes and products by providing multiple opportunities for new investment, giving rise to new business and technological systems.
11.Cuál is the essence of competitive strategy?
The strategy seeks to develop and use the strengths to meet the needs of
customers better than competitors.
The strategy determines and defines the types of processes, structures, human resources, culture and climate that is required to be competitive.
12.Cuáles are the factors determining the organizational competitiveness?
olo the company does in all its activities.
general oProceso (decision making, planning).
oProcesos operational (administrative, production, marketing, sales and human resources management).
oPermite improve efficiency and competitiveness of the processes.
Without technology or processes can not be competitive.
or Process Automation.
-Structure of the organization by processes or functions:
oCaracteriza the roles, responsibilities, requirements and interrelationships of the posts.
or as a cluster and defines roles and responsibilities that are the functional areas.
oDestrezas and human knowledge.
or attributes, and behaviors related to the requirements of dedication and commitment to the company.
o The current and future competitiveness to create competent and committed people.
oDestrezas and human knowledge.
or attributes, and behaviors related to the requirements of dedication and commitment to the company.
oLa current and future competitiveness to create competent and committed people.
oAmbiente positive or negative that exists in the company.
Otieno direct and significant impact on the performance of company results.
oun bad weather hampers the achievement of high performance and creates chronic barriers to good performance.
13.Que are the strategists?
Create context for change, encourage commitment and responsibility and balance stability and innovation. This highly associated with the topic of Leadership and their types.
14.Qué is the Mission statement?
What is our business? Describe the values and priorities of the organization.
15.Qué are the threats and opportunities?
Trends, economic developments, technological, and competitive. Are largely beyond the control of the organization, but can perform environmental studies and industry analysis.
16.Que are the strengths and weaknesses?
Activities performed very well or poorly. Identify and evaluate them. Introducing competition in comparison.
17.Que are the Millennium LP?
They provide the foundation to plan, organize, motivate and monitor effectively.
18.Qué are annual objectives and policies?
Annual Objectives: CP objectives are to achieve the LP.
Policies: the medium to be used to achieve annual goals. Include guidelines, rules, procedures. It outlines what is expected of employees or managers.
19.Cuáles are the types of strategy?
Forward Integration: control over distributors and retailers: To grant franchises.
Integration Behind: control over suppliers: recycling or environmental controls.
Horizontal Integration: control over competitors: Mergers and acquisitions to improve economies of scale.
Market Penetration: greater efforts in marketing.
Market Development: Introducing current products and services in other areas.
Product Development: Improvement in products.
Concentric Diversification: addition of new but related products.
Horizontal Diversification: adding new products but not related.
Conglomerate Diversification: General Electric locomotives, light bulbs, light and power plants and refrigerators.
Risk-sharing: joint venture in order to take advantage.
Shrinkage: reducing costs and assets.
Disinvestment: sale of a division.
Sale: for sale at the CIA.
Combination: one or more.
According to Porter:
1. COST LEADERSHIP
4. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE (UNITED)
20.Qué is the competitive industry analysis and what are its critical aspects?
... Uses a set of tools, concepts and techniques to achieve a clear assessment on the key characteristics of the industry, the intensity of competition, the drivers of change, market positions, strategies of rival companies, the keys to competitive success and the future prospect of profits.
Critical aspects in this analysis:
1.What are the dominant economic characteristics in the industry?
2.Cuáles are competitive forces at work in the industry and how powerful are they?
3.Cuáles are the drivers of change in industry and what impact will they have?
4.What companies are in competitive positions more powerful / weak?
5.What company is likely to take steps which would be competitive and measures?
6.Cuáles are the key factors of competitive success or failure?
7. How attractive is the industry in terms of its prospects for above average performance?
1. Economic Characteristics (INDUSTRY: combinations of companies whose products have many common attributes that are competing for the same customers). Besides what was discussed and seen in class last week, will have some concepts such as:
Market volume, rate of market growth and industry position, number of opponents and their relative volumes, number of buyers and their relative volumes, frequencies of backward integration, distribution channel types, pace of technological change, product or highly differentiated services, etc..
2. Michael E. Porter: Competitive Strategy - Techniques for analyzing Industries and Competition: The Porter view is that there are 5 forces that determine the consequences of long-term profitability of a market or segment of this
The intensity of the rivalry between competing companies is a function of the energy with which employ tactics such as lowering the price, adding most striking features of the product, improve customer service, longer warranties, special promotions and introduction of new products.
3. Drivers of change and its impact:
The industry conditions change and competition because they are in motion forces that create incentives or pressures for change. There are many elements that can be considered as driving forces:
- Changes in the rate of long-term growth of the industry: determined by variations in supply and demand, entry and exit.
- Changes in those who buy the product and how they use: changing demographics, lifestyles, etc..
- Product innovation
- Technological change: open borders, increased production at lower cost. Generates changes in the components of capital, low volume plant, etc..
- Innovation Marketing: internet.
- Entry or exit of major firms
- Dissemination of technical know-how
- Increased globalization of industry
4. Companies holding more / less strong: common variables: price, quality, geographic coverage, degree of vertical integration, product line, distribution channels, level of service.
5. Probable strategic measures of competition: competitive advantage to know more of what this industry has known for my business. The more complicated the action prediction.
6. Competitive Critical Success Factors: concerning what each member of the industry should do in a competent manner or concentrate on her achievement in order to be successful in both the competitive and financially.
7. Industry attractive or not: analysis and results
of the six questions.
21.Cuáles are two basic types of decisions?
Those found using a specific process (rational) and those who give themselves (irrational, spontaneous, not thought).
§ Both provide opportunities and learning experiences. The advantage of using a specific process of decision making is that it reduces stress levels.
§ Those are wise decisions that are made using a defined process.
22.En which is based on defined process?
This process is based on the values and perceptions of who makes the decision. It includes consideration of alternatives and options through a periodic assessment of the decisions and their effects.
Each problem can be seen as an opportunity for change.
23.Cuáles are the types of decisions?
"Scheduled" is designed and planned with specific procedures.
"No-programmed occur spontaneously or without programming that requires decision making.
-Coercive - decision making required and without the participation of the parties concerned.
24.Cuáles are the steps for making decisions?
I. Define the Problem
§ You can ask yourself and others the following:
§ What do you think causes the problem?
§ Where, how and what is going on?
§ Who's going?
§ Why is it happening?
§ Describe the problem specifically.
§ If a complex problem is considered advisable to proceed to answer the questions mentioned so as to achieve describe the problems.
§ It is important to check the understanding of the problems. This can be achieved through dialogue with a couple to clarify matters.
§ Another aspect to consider is to establish order or priority issues to address. This is useful to distinguish between urgent and important.
§ Understanding our role in the issue is important because they influence greatly on how one perceives the role of others.
II. For potential causes of the problem.
§ At this stage it is important to receive feedback from those who notice the problem or who are being affected by it.
§ Write your opinions and what you've heard from others.
§ Make a description of the cause of the problem in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, who and why.
III. Identifying Alternatives for Solving the Problem.
§ Develop a brainstorming session to solve the problem.
§ Brainstorming is to collect as many ideas as possible and Lurga sift them to find the best idea.
IV. Selecting an alternative to solve the problem.
One must consider:
§ What alternative will solve the problem long term?
§ What is more realistic alternative at the moment?
§ What resources do we have? Are they accessible?
§ Do we have enough time to implement the alternative?
§ What is the risk associated with each alternative?
V. Establish an action plan to implement the best alternative.
Consider the following:
§ How the situation will be when the problem is resolved?
§ What steps are taken to implement the best alternative to solve the problem?
§ What systems or processes should be changed by a policy or procedure?
V. Establish an action plan to implement the best alternative.
Consider the following (continued):
§ How do we know that steps are being implemented?
§ What resources are needed in terms of people, facilities and finances?
§ How much time is needed to implement the alternative? This requires the creation of an agenda.
§ Who will be responsible for ensuring the implementation of the plan?
VI. Monitoring the Implementation of the Plan.
Some things to consider:
§ Note that you are giving expected through implementation.
§ Collate who is conducting the scheduled itinerary or agenda.
§ If the plan set is not giving the expected results for revising the plan.
VII. Check whether the plan has been effective or not.
§ A way to see how effective it is to verify that operations return to normal.
§ Listening to whether the changes will prevent the same problem in the future.
§ questions we have learned from the decision making process (knowledge, understanding, skills).
25.Cuáles are some errors in decision making?
Focus on one source of information.
Overestimate the value of the information received from others.
Underestimating the value of the information received from others.
Listen and see only what we want.
Do not listen
Do not offer participation
Make unilaterally or forced
Psychological Factors 26.Cuáles are obstructing Intelligent Decisions?
Rubin (1986) noted that the following factors
obstruct intelligent decisions. These are:
§ Not being in touch with our feelings.
§ Self-Doubt - little information or incorrect information
§ Exaggerating the viewpoint of one.
§ Being dependent.
§ Magical Thinking
§ Avoiding decisions.
§ To take hasty decisions.
§ Putting off making decisions.
§ Have unclear instructions
27.Por why some people make unethical decisions?
By not having the correct information
By putting their own interests
To be contrary or want the failure of the task
Be motivated by negative
Features 28.Cuáles are organizational decisions?
Are planned with time
Provide adequate information
Involve all staff concerned
Make a plan with phases, dates and results to expect.
Credit is given to all participants
They are based on positive motivation
Posed alternate plans.
Provides reasonable time for participants to perform the task.
It hides or disguises the true purposes of decision making.
Considers all aspects of decision making including any obstacles.
Develops criteria for evaluating the decision.
29.La decision making can be affected by:
Education or academic preparation of its participants.
For the decisional level that gives each person.
For their own values and beliefs
For the motivation of individuals.
For the expectations of each.
In the interests of each other
30.Algunas Techniques for improving group decision making (Delphi technique)?
It is a strategy group where members are not face to face in the process of decision making.
a.La organization selects participants or experts.
b.Cada member is the basic problem to solve.
c.Cada individual member makes comments, recommendations to solve the problem anonymously.
d.Alguien delegate collects information from each member, transcribed and reproduced.
e.Cada member receives a copy of what others have written without knowing who wrote them.
f.Cada member offers retrocomunicación work of others, write new ideas and re-sent to the designated person.
g.La organization the previous two steps repeated until a consensus on the decision to make.
31.Cuáles are the forces driving the need for change?
or informed more quickly and efficiently
or faster and more efficient transportation.
o More information networks linking people globally.
-INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
or Less Tariffs (GATT)
or currencies linked through a floating exchange rate
or Major global capital flows.
-MATURING MARKET COUNTRIES
or slower domestic growth
Exporting or more aggressive.
-FALL OF THE COMMUNIST AND SOCIALIST SCHEME
or more countries linked to the capitalist system.
or more privatization.
32.Qué is obtained with the globalization of markets and competition?
MORE LARGE-SCALE CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS
To avoid the risks and / or maximize the opportunities, companies must become competitors
stronger. The typical processing methods include:
* Reengineering * Restructuring * Quality Programs
Mergers and acquisitions * * * Cultural Change Strategic Change
33.Cuáles are the stages of change process?
STAGE 1: infuse meaning of haste
Why is complacency?
"Too many words for joy on the part of senior management.
Absence of a major crisis and visible.
"Too many visible resources
-Low overall performance standards
"Organizational structures that guide employees toward narrow functional goals.
-Internal measurement systems that focus on the performance indices wrong.
-Lack of adequate feedback about performance by external sources.
-Oriented culture to destroy the bearer of bad news, with some candor, little sense of confrontation.
"Human nature, with its ability to deny, especially if people are already busy or fall prey to stress.
STEP 2: Create guiding coalition
TEAM CASH: power, leadership, experience, credibility
RIGHT PEOPLE, with mutual trust and sharing common objectives
STEP 3: Develop a vision and strategy, and
STEP 4: COMMUNICATE THE VISION OF CHANGE
A VISION EFFECTIVE: imaginable, focused, flexible, communicative, desirable
STEP 5: Empower employees (empowerment)
Employees understand the vision and want to make it a reality, but are trapped:
- Barriers to the empowerment of employees
-Lack of skills undermines the action.
"The areas of personnel and information systems hinder the employees to act.
"The chiefs discourage actions to implement the new vision.
STEP 6: GENERATE SHORT TERM ACHIEVEMENTS
ROLE OF ACHIEVEMENTS
"It becomes apparent that sacrifices are worth it.
"They reward change agents.
-They help to sharpen vision and strategy viability.
-Weaken resistance to change.
Confirm to senior management-change convenience.
-Intensify momentum among the people.
VISION - STRATEGY-LEADERSHIP - ACTION - RESULTS
Planning for visible improvements in performance, or triumphs.
Lead to such success.
Give visible recognition and rewards to those who have made possible the victories.
ETAPA7. Strengthen institutional productivity generate more changes
Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures and policies that do not fit together and which do not fit the vision for change.
Hiring, promoting and developing people who can implement the change vision.
Strengthen the process with new projects, themes and change agents.
STAGE 8: THE ROOTS CULTURE NEW APPROACHES
CULTURAL CHANGE OCCURS AT THE END, NOT AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESS OF CHANGE
1. Results can accelerate cultural change.
2. It takes great communication
3. May involve rotation of personnel
> 4. Decisions on reallocation of power are critical
Lead to better performance through a customer-oriented behavior and towards productivity, greater leadership, more effective and more efficient administration.
Articulate connections between new behaviors and success of the
Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession of posts in the establishment.
34.Cuáles organizations are profiles?
* With multiple levels.
* Organized with the expectation that senior management will manage.
* Characterized by policies and procedures that generate numerous and complicated internal interdependencies
* Focused towards the inside of the company.
* Slow decision-making.
* Opposed to the risks.
* Non-bureaucratic, with fewer rules and employees.
* Limited to fewer levels.
* Organized with the expectation that senior management will manage, and lower-level employees to manage.
* Characterized by policies and procedures that generate minimal internal interdependence needed to serve customers paras.
* Oriented to the outside.
* Empower employees.
* Expedited for decision making ..
* Open and honest.
* More tolerant of risk.
What is 35.En Organizational Reengineering?
Change the only constant.
Need to improve in terms of quality, cost, time to market and customer service. (Reinventing itself)
1. Organizational Innovation and Process
2. Creative application of IT
Michael Hammer: ... the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed
It involves the fundamental rethinking of the production process.
Advances in IT has been driving these measures especially in service industries.
Nature 36.Cuál is Reengineering?
Management commitments are decisions made by these, which bind the company to specific behaviors in the future.
Define commitments: Home shape character of the organization.
Strengthen commitments. Other commitments that do not define it. It may involve major actions, large public investments, or promises, or a series of small steps based on the past. Strengthening is easier, less expensive and faster than reinvent.
Transform commitments. External influence.
37.Cuáles are the principles of reengineering?
Achieve a significant improvement in quality requirements, speed, innovation, manufacturing and service charge, all customer-facing.
Organize around outcomes, not tasks
- Involved in organizing the work of several into one, thereby eliminating the handoff.
- Increased speed product. and compliance of clients.
- Provides a single point of contact for customer information.
Make those who use the product of the process, running
- Must be where it makes more sense.
- Relocated from this form involves eliminating or reducing the need to coordinate implementers and users of a process.
Merging the work of processing information with the real work that produces the information
> - He who raises should be responsible for processing.
- Not form more groups to follow suit and reduce the number of internal and external contacts (errors).
Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized
- It facilitates the parallel processing of work through separate organizational units.
- It is done through IT.
Joining the scattered activities instead of integrating results
- This is the main cause of work redone, high costs and delays.
- They must join in a continuous and coordinated during the process.
Put the decision point in the place where the job is run to create a control for the process
- TD is part of the work performed.
- FL + educated and informed.
- Control of the process.
Capture information once at the source
- Avoid incorrect earnings.
To create a new process and sustain the improvements takes more than a creative application of information technology.
It is people that drive a process:
38.Cuál is the process of reengineering?
It also requires a disciplined approach to innovation
1.EXPONER A CASE FOR TAKING ACTION
Be communicated effectively.
Why? Need for action.
Effective Vision Statement
Quantitative and Qualitative Overview: cost reduction, time to market, quality levels and customer satisfaction and financial indicators.
The redesign and implementation are the responsibility of a cross-functional team to assess the processes.
PROCESS FOR REENGINEERING 2.IDENTIFICAR
The main processes must be identified at the start.
Not all happening at the same time.
- What are the + problem now?
- What are critical for carrying out the strategy Co. and has the greatest impact on customers?
- What processes are most likely to be successfully redesigned?
- What is the scope of the project and what are the costs involved?
- What are the strengths of the reengineering team and the commitment of the owners and sponsors of the process?
- The process is obsolete or outdated IT used?
IT and human subjects / organizational = facilitators.
The manager must be able to evaluate current and emerging IT and identify creative applications to redesign their existing processes.
Culture should be evaluated in light of the change caused by it.
To address issues of pay and measurement, professionalism, job enrichment and training of new skills.
CURRENT PROCESS 4.COMPRESION
The current should be diagnosed.
The purpose is not to fix the old process but create a new, radically improved, no need to detail the time and for studies of movement.
Working with Value Added: the customer is willing to pay.
Work without Value Added: not for the customer but to work.
Waste: work that adds neither value nor permits.
5.CREACIÓN OF A NEW DESIGN PROCESS
It must start with a clean sheet.
The creative nature of innovation makes that process redesign is not algorithmic and routine.
It should suspend the new rules, procedures, values of the process for creating designs.
The first job is to eliminate all waste.
Then the non-value added work.
6.CREACIÓN OF A NEW DESIGN PROCESS
Hammer says it is rare to find less than 10% of the activities of a value-added process.
The job becomes more extensive and complex to redesign processes.
7.IMPLEMENTACIÓN PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING
Leadership is critical, not only for the implementation process but to the entire effort.
It requires a direct and permanent commitment.
Reengineering teams are responsible for putting in execution of new designs.
The support of managers is crucial, as training.
39.Cuáles are the techniques and tools of process redesign?
Recognition of possible solutions and then seek to know and acknowledge the obvious or latent problems can be resolved.
2.GRAFICACIÓN FLOWS: These are the essential tool.
CREATIVE 3.REDISEÑO: These are the essential tool.
4.BENCHMARKING: continuous improvement tool. It can be used to gather information.
5.SIMULACIÓN: For computer.
Be responsible, sometimes forcing people to anger.
The day the soldier fails to bring us their problems is the day we're not leaders, because they do not trust us help you, or become convinced that we do not care. Either
case will failure of leadership.
Do not be pushing either by experts or by elites. Experts often have much data but little sense. The elites and between them intersect, they produce hemophiliacs who bleed
with a scratch of reality.
Do not hesitate to challenge the professionals, even in the land of them
Never neglect details. When everyone's mind is tired or distracted the leader must be doubly vigilant.
If you try, you never know if possible.
Always scratch below the surface. Avoid not only because it can be unpleasant what you find.
The organization is not really achieved something. No plans, nor care much about management theories. The success or failure of what we take will depend on the people involved. Then, just to attract the best, you can have great achievements.
Organizational and almost sounding titles are worthless. "
Never let your ego is identified with both his post if the post disappeared, his ego is going with him. "
Do not fall into stereotypes. Do not chase the latest management fashion. Is the situation dictates which approach best achieved by the group's mission. "
The perpetual optimism force multiplier. "
Powell rules for personal pick: Look for intelligence and discretion above all, the ability to provide what could be just around the corner. Also look for loyalty, integrity, vigor and energy, a balanced ego and the drive to achieve.
The great leader is almost always a great simplifier, who knows abbreviate the arguments, debates and questions to offer a solution everybody can understand. "
1a. Party: Use the formula P = 40 to 70 where P is the probability of success and the numbers are the minimum and maximum percentage of information acquired.
2a. Party: Having already between 40 and 70 per cent of information, follow your intuition.
The field commander will always have the right. The rear is in error, unless proven otherwise. "
Have fun on your activity. Not always run to exhaustion. When you have earned a rest, take it: spend time with his family.
Consequently: surround yourself with those who take their work seriously, but not themselves, ie those who are struggling to work and in recreation.
Alone are commanded. "
Leadership is the art of achieving more
of what management science
tells us is possible.
41.Cuáles are the 5 disciplines of the learning organization?
42.Cuáles are the obstacles to the systematic thinking
- I am my position
"The external enemy
"The illusion of taking charge
"The fixation on events
"The illusion that it learns from experience
"The myth of the management team
43.Cuáles are the foundations of systems thinking?
"Today's problems stem from yesterday's solutions
Principles of feedback-compensating
"The conduct worsen before improving
"The easy path leads to the same place
"The cure may be worse than the disease
-The fastest is the slowest
"The cause and effect are distant in space and time
-Areas of increased leverage are often the least obvious
"You can achieve two seemingly contradictory goals
"Half of an elephant are two small elephants
44.Cuáles are the characteristics of high personal mastery?
1.A vision is a vocation not just a good idea
2.La reality is an ally, not an enemy. Working with and on the forces of change
3.Profundamente inquisitive and want to see reality with increasing precision.
4.Connect with others without sacrificing their uniqueness
5.Parte of a broader creative process which can influence without controlling utilitarian
6.Viven in continuous learning modularity
7.Aspiran emotional development with the same force that others wish the physical and intellectual
8.Su relation to work is sacred
9.Capacidad to focus on targets relevant not only in secondary
Erroneous 45.Cuáles are some strategies to manage conflict?
1.Permitir vision wear
2.Generar fear of failure
46.Cuáles are some strategies to manage conflict better?
1.Compromiso with the truth within us recognize patterns such resigning because nobody likes me
2.Use the subconscious, or it is not necessary to understand everything. Increased level of communication between normal consciousness and the subconscious
3.Integración of reason and intuition
4.Ver our connection to the world: increasing connectivity
5.Compasión: an understanding of all the charges reduced and guilt.
6.Compromiso with the whole: the broader view leads to commitment to a vision much larger than ourselves.
47.Cuáles are the basic conditions for dialogue?
2.All participants must be seen as colleagues
3.Debe be a referee to keep the context of dialogue
a.Evita authoritarian or expert skills
4.Equilibrio between dialogue and discussion
5.Reflexión, inquiry and dialogue
48.Escuchar is essential to change.
Change requires self-leadership. Real change depends on the motivation and self-leadership of both leaders and followers.
49.Cuáles are the expectations of self-leadership?
NOS-NO DAMAGE BUT WHAT WE DO WHAT WE EXPECT AND NOT ...
-IF YOU CAN NOT PRESS HAS BEEN upsets ...
Indirect 50.Costos Mistrust
- Doubts and constant inspections
- Less work creative and value added
- Is accompanied by hostility and anger
- Being on the defensive is exhausting
-Job dissatisfaction increases
1. Choose a task whose responsibility is to share
2. Select a person with the knowledge and skills
3. Achieve will understand and know the resources
4. Define what will make everyone and the time
5. Set this in writing
6. Set meetings to avoid interruptions
7. Revise the plan as required
8. If all goes well, do not change the plan
9. Evaluate the end and Apreda
52.Veinte Points for Self Leadership
1. The quality and depth of our leadership is reflected in our relations with our colleagues and our fans. We must be convinced of our values because they reveal who we really are as leaders.
2. We are not powerless to choose our living and working conditions. We have a choice and those choices are the secret of our power. The desire to exercise our options is the energy source for leadership.
3. We must recognize our addictions to discover if we are true to our essence or if we live in a self-imposed prison driven by others or by the expectations of our organization
4. The real changes come from changing our mental maps. The high energy comes from a clear personal vision and passion.
5. Conduct an assessment of our leadership based on our own records of those who do complete rather than partial and incomplete records of any other person.
6. We must take stock of our leadership talent if we are to benefit in future from past lessons.
7. We must personally decide under what criteria we measure our legacy of leadership.
8. Reinvent ourselves in a continuous learning process that lasts a lifetime.
9. Establish strong support systems that can take us through the vagaries of change.
10. We must take brave risks for talks to keep us in a frank and creative dialogue face to face with our colleagues and supporters.
11. Design a plan b.
12. Imagine your week ideal. Paper do not victims of external forces we need to take control of our calendars.
13. 1st must make important decisions in life that are the stuff of career decisions. (Plan a heart check)
14. Mix and mutual priorities (work and personal life) or else we are going to waste our most valuable currency.
15. Working with a clear purpose creates success with personal achievement: a statement of personal purpose in writing reduces anxiety in times of change. Why do I get up in the morning?
16. We must live with a clear intention to establish contact and consistent with a higher power greater than ourselves.
17. Leading from a clear sense of purpose creates personal courage. True courage attracts the true followers. We are only as good as they say the activities of our calendars.
18. The key to great performance is honesty: do a few things, but consistently. Honesty is created or destroyed by small everyday things that become models.
20. People are attracted to what is being celebrated. Celebrate the many ways to celebrate.
53. What are the goals of time management?
- Sensitize the participants about the importance of time value as a vital resource scarce and nonrenewable
- Provide tools to make creative use of their time
54. What is time?
It is a construct of the human intellect
We use it to test and measure and express changes
Everything revolves around time
Time is a convention that ordered and synchronized life in society
55. What are the realities and myths about time?
§ Huge pressure constantly makes us suffer
§ obsessive desire to live against the clock
§ Unit of agendas, schedules
§ Is it possible to gain time?
§ Do we have time we need?
§ Modern technology and saving time
§ The need for more security and more control
§ The timing that we've created tyrannizes
§ Time management and personal crises
§ The chronobiology. About 100 rhythms that govern the human body
§ The mechanical clock
§ The man, a slave of time
§ The time is out of control
§ The computer and the time
56. What is time management?
§ Technique for time does not turn against us
§ Doing the right thing at the right time
§ Spaces in a world free of hurry. Time for personal activities
§ We can not change time. What we can change is the way it is administered
§ We must develop the ability to perceive the opportunity
§ We need the speed and slowness, activity and rest
§ Do not consider time as a line. We live in cycles
§ recognize and cultivate several ways to manage time
§ Have we forgotten that our life is rhythm?
§ In any effort to follow a relaxation
§ breaks Celebrate! Without them we would do is walk wandering through the flow of time
§ The man works effectively once it has shutdown its concern (Francesco Petrarca)
§ In life there is no standard on how to use the time but only a right way to use
§ The time I was out of hand like sand in the wind (Victor Hugo)
57. What is time management?
§ The art of making time to serve for the benefit of people
§ Manage the time not only means learning not to waste it but to enrich and enjoy
§ The effective use of time is a source of order, serenity, pleasure, interest in life, efficiency, safety, freedom and satisfaction
58. What is to manage time well?
§ We must be realistic and know what to do in a given period
§ By knowing what we want to organize and plan activities to achieve a balance between what we want and what we do
§ We must learn to prioritize
59. Name some theoretical principles:
§ Most people do not know exactly how we are managing our time
§ Most of the problems and time losses arising from acting without thinking
§ The effective use of time also requires planning our future and our immediate future mediate
§ The time available should be allocated in priority order
§ Every time schedule should be flexible to adapt to unforeseen
§ often creates tension between the urgency and importance
§ The tyranny of the urgent does postpone the most important goals, forget the priorities and respond to problems too, as if they were all crisis
§ The use of time is optimal when maximum benefits are achieved with minimal effort
§ There are problems that tend to be solved by themselves. Identify knowledge results in a saving of time and effort (Principle of calculated neglect)
§ The habit of postponing decisions and actions is a common way of losing not only time, but many valuable opportunities (Procrastination)
§ Often activities that yield little time-consuming and consuming activities that yield much recently
60. Name some practical principles?
oIdentificar how I am using my time (analysis time)
oAnticipar and prevention is better than cure
occasions everything takes longer than originally thought
oPrever the unexpected
Ö deadlines force adequately defined the action
forming similar tasks oAgrupar blocks avoids confusion, eliminate duplication and save time and effort
Interruptions are chronic enemies oLas time
oDiseñar programs and controls to reduce interruptions
Opara achieve an appropriate structure for managing time, it is useful to divide the goals themselves:
§ Maintenance Objectives
§ Growth Objectives
§ Objectives of innovation
Ö conflicts between objectives are met by prioritizing
61. 75 keys to better manage your time:
1.The time is a limited resource
2.Afronte their tasks with relaxed attitude
3.Deje of being a perfectionist
4.Trate their workplace as a space for maximum efficiency
5.Cree a work environment that enhances their energy and creativity
6.Disponga high levels of energy
7.Es more important to choose the right destination to forward speed
8.Establecer written goals and objectives will facilitate their achievement
9.Siempre assign deadlines to achieve your goals
10.Aprenda to make the uncomfortable comfortable
11.Divida their big goals in a series of smaller goals
12.Adquiera the habit of planning every day
13.Determine the importance of each scheduled task
14.Al think planning results, not tasks
15.Prevea development time of each task
16. Avoid distractions!
17.Cree the habit of planning the next day, before bed
18.Siempre possible, try to complete each task once
19.En complex tasks, develop a map that clarifies the whole process
20.Prepare advance meetings involving the participation
21.Aprenda to deal with the unexpected
22.Trate daily to generate small increases in productivity
23.Al plan, consider a 10 to 15% contingency
24.Evite use loose pieces of paper to record ideas or commitments
25.Habitúese to leave things in place when finished using them
26.Prepare everything you need before starting any work
27.Evite accumulate roles in his desk
28.Utilice all the tools that help you be more effective
29.Comience performing more complex tasks and heavy first
30. Take action immediately!
31.Comience their day creating a positive inertia
32.Habitúese to start early in the morning
33.Haga a habit of punctuality
36.Procure adjust the order of importance of their tasks
37.Realice routine tasks in energy-peak hours
38.Tome the time to learn what makes you more effective
39.Busque ways to simplify and facilitate routine tasks
40.Rétese to complete their tasks before the deadline is fixed
41.Conviértase a person of action
42.Comience and fuel the cycle of success
43.Convierta the tasks you do everyday into powerful habits
44.Imagine with only half a day to do the job all day
45.Elimine personal interruptions
46.Aprenda to say NO when necessary
47.Elimine unnecessary travel
48.Siempre possible, bring together all the small tasks to perform simultaneously
49. Reward your results!
50.Utilice visible system for measuring progress in their projects
51.Cuando a task is difficult, try starting at a point other than the principle
52.Trate to reduce the energy wasted by duplicating creative processes
53.Actúe as its coach
54.Enfréntese to the challenges and difficulties facing him
55.Delegue whenever possible, but keep control
56.Establezca an efficient file
57.Mantenga always handy personal planner
58.Cree the habit of making decisions quickly and effectively
59.Minimice the time spent compiling responses
60.Aprenda speed reading techniques
61.No detracting from small time thieves
62.Cree and periodically review a list of future commitments reminder
63.Dedique a week to check how you are using your time
64.Reconozca when it is necessary a change of course
65.Mantenga a record of the time it takes for the completion of each work
66.Evalúe what work you always leave for later
Inertia generated 67.Aproveche get moving
68.Sopese postpone the consequences associated tasks
69.Comprométase with someone who cares, to strengthen his resolve
70.Piense before acting
71.Convierta tedious tasks of something pleasant to do
72.Venza procrastinating procrastination procrastination
73.Antes starting a job, displaying it as if it was finished
74.Analice the reasons for postponing a task against the benefits of completing
75.Piense on someone you admire for their results and act like him
NEGOTIATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE PROCESSES
62. What is Negotiation?
Negotiating is a transaction through the process of treating a subject in order to reach a satisfactory solution.
63. What is required to negotiate?
§ Awareness of values
64. Do not forget to negotiate?
In most of our activities require some negotiation.
Negotiating is the art of lying, but the challenge is to convince.
Negotiate means exposing our views, receive others and be willing to mix and interrelationship of appropriate solutions go
The best negotiator is one who makes you feel all winning all but one who makes that all who were involved feel they have succeeded in the solution.
The Art of Negotiating involves taking as much care, so mature and so much concern, as if he were always negotiating with the loved
It involves knowing clearly what you want and be able to substantiate it and have the ability to express and defend it.
It involves self-improvement and the need for success
65. What is the negotiation of effective collaboration?
Is to find out what you really want the other party and show the Menera of doing, while one gets what one wants.
66. What is conflict?
Etymologically = crash
It implies struggle, battle, controversy,
FIGHT FOR DECONCILIACION
Climate: Climate: creativity
67. What is the energy I?
Resulting energy field of human interaction and can be positive or negative.
RESULTS OF SELF ENERGY
I ENEGETICOYO ENERGY
68. Name some kinds of conflict:
Conscientize: You know exists.
POSTED: It is known but it avoids aubicándolo elsewhere.
LATENT: It senses but is concealed
FALSE: There is apparently (rumor), but when confronted clarifies and disappears.
69. When given the Negotiation without conflict?
Occurs when two or more parties to discover and perceive the likelihood of mutual benefit
70. What are the application areas for negotiation?
INTRAPERSONAL: Bargaining with myself
INTERPERSONAL: Negotiating with others
ORGANIZATION: Negotiations between departments, offices, professional hierarchies, and so on.
INTER: Negotiation between different companies
71. What are the types of negotiation?
According to those involved:
Individuals with individuals
Individuals with groups
According to stakeholder participation:
Direct: you are part of the process
Hints: the person appointed mediators
According to matters to be negotiated: commercial, political, religious, technical, affective
According to the relative status of the negotiators
According to the human environment:
Friendly, open, sincere
Controversial, confrontational, lies
According to the triggers:
Free - Enforced
Morales - legal
According to the communication channel:
Head to Head
Obtained from representatives
72. What is organizational behavior?
It consists of:
- Understanding human behavior (Importance - Ability)
- Need for organizations to secure and retain EMPLOYEES OF HIGHER PERFORMANCE
- More important is the quality of jobs and support the workplace.
- The technical requirements are important but insufficient for success in management.
73. What are the 4 stages of the administrative process?
74. What is the role of manager?
K have strategic through which monitoring carried and spread the message among members of the organization.
3. Dealers Resources
75. What are the skills that a manager must possess >?
1. Specialized K
1. Ability to work with people, understand and motivate both individually and in groups.
2. Conflict Management
1. Mental faculty p / analyze and diagnose complex situations.
2. Decision Making
76. What activities must have a manager?
1. Decision Making
2. Planning and Control
1. Routine exchange of information and papers
1. Motivate - Discipline
2. Conflict - Provide Staff
2. Interacting with people
77. What is organizational behavior and its determinants?
Field study investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within organizations, in order to apply this knowledge to improving the effectiveness of these organizations
It is the firm belief that only by working together it is possible that the organization thrive.
This requires secure mechanisms for sharing knowledge, empowering and facilitating decision making at all levels of the organization.
Or paddle together, or we do not reach anywhere
Study vrs Intuition
Search for relationships, not necessarily feeling
attempt to assign causes and effects supported by research.
and drawing conclusions
based on evidence.
78. What are the challenges and opportunities of organizational behavior?
- Globalization: comprehensively covers issues such as social, political, economy. Extending beyond national borders and regional boundaries.
- Diversity Business: It means that organizations have become more heterogeneous in terms of workforce.
- Fertility rate
- Improving Quality and Productivity: Related aspects of Quality Control, Process Reengineering and JIT.
- Business Process Reengineering: It is a technique by which it is discussed in detail the operation of one or more processes within an enterprise so as to completely redesign and improve dramatically.
- Just in Time: It covers five phases: basic principles
-Improving Capacities of staff:
What kind of work should in the future?
Decision making is being lowered to the operational level, giving freedom to staff regarding times and procedures and to solve problems at work.
Managers must learn to relinquish control and employees to accept responsibility for decisions taken
These changes produce movements in areas such as leadership styles, power relationships, how to design work and how to structure organizations.
-What to do with the theme of temporality?
The administration was characterized by long periods of stability, occasionally interrupted by brief moments of change. Today however, the activity is related to long periods of constant change occasionally interrupted by brief moments of stability.
The current positions are in a permanent state of flux, so that employees must continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new tasks at work.
>-How to balance the conflict between life and work?
60s and 70s Employees working from L to V (8 hours).
Now the line between work and leisure is invisible.
Global Organizations: society does not sleep.
Communications Technology: Telecommuting.
Family Economic Composition: Both income.
a. Diversity of moral systems ... when some people to act is right, for others it is immoral, such as divorce, abortion, euthanasia, etc.. Everything depends on the criterion we use to choose a standard or reversed.
b. Human Freedom: Human freedom is not quite real. There is conditioned by society and are acting under social pressure, cultural or work. He says the problem is the incompatibility of human freedom and moral standards, that is in being and should be.
c. Values: The problem is that values are subjective or objective? What is the essence of values? There are already defined values?
d. Ends and means: End justifies the means ...
e. Moral obligation: that which is done out of obligation does not achieve the desired effect, it loses all merit. Must be made by personal choice.
f. Human Freedom: Human freedom is not quite real. There is conditioned by society and are acting under social pressure, cultural or work. He says the problem is the incompatibility of human freedom and moral standards, that is in being and should be.
g. Values: The problem is that values are subjective or objective? What is the essence of values? There are already defined values?
What is Ethics?
Science policy of the rectitude of human acts as ultimate principles and rational.
Ethics is a knowledge that is concerned to be targeted to human behavior and the means to that end.
Characteristics of the Moral: Morality is the real fact that we find in all societies, is a set of rules that is transmitted from generation to generation, evolving over time and have strong differences with respect to the standards of another society and other historical period, these rules are used to guide the conduct of members of that society.
Features of ethics: It is the true fact that occurs in the minds of some people, is a set of rules namely, principles and reasons that an individual has made and established as a guideline for their own behavior.
79. On the issue of dependent variables, which means productivity?
An organization is productive if it achieves its goals and in so doing, transform their inputs into outputs at less cost. In doing so, it encompasses a concern for effectiveness and efficiency.
80. Dependent variables:
Absent: All absences are bad or inappropriate for the organization??
ROTATION: The permanent removal of the organization, voluntary or involuntary. A high rate of rotation increases the costs of recruitment, selection and training.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP: Includes discretionary behavior that is not part of the formal requirements of the employee, but anyway, promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
JOB SATISFACTION: ... the individual's general attitude toward his job. Satisfied employees are more productive than dissatisfied.
LEVEL OF INDIVIDUALS: The mileage directly influences the behavior of individuals at work. The age, sex, marital status, personality, emotional constitution, values and attitudes and basic skills.
GROUPS PLAN: The behavior of the group is more than the sum of individual behavior. People act differently when in groups. There are patterns of conduct and standards of individual behavior.
MAP SYSTEMS ORGANIZATIONS: Just as the group is more than the sum of its individuals, the organization is more than the accumulation of their groups. There is a formal design, work processes and positions, rules and practices of human resources of the organization.
81. What is the relationship between age and labor productivity?
1. Job performance decreases with age.
2. THE LABOR FORCE IS MOVING TOWARD GROUPS OF PEOPLE OVER 55 YEARS.
3. RETREAT IS THE SUBJECT OF EACH NATION OWN.
Some employers believe that older age bring positive qualities to work: experience, wisdom, strong work ethic and commitment to quality.
There is some level of resistance to the use of technology.
The older, less likely to leave employment
There is little or no significant difference between women and men that affect their job performance.
There are no constants in the problem-solving skills, analytical skills, the drive to compete, motivation, sociability, or the ability to learn.
In terms of hours if there are differences.
Women have higher absenteeism rates (domestic and family responsibility)
... Research shows that married employees constantly miss less, spend less rotation for and are more satisfied with their job than their unmarried
Marriage imposes greater responsibilities that increase the value and importance of stable employment.
82. What is skill?
It is the ability that an individual has to perform different tasks at work. It is an updated assessment of what one can do