Lingïísticos signs (units of language) divide their time in various, components that are studied in various fields of linguistics. These components are linked together, combine or unite to give rise to larger units. Thus we see that the various phonemes (sound units) meet to give rise to combinations of sounds that allow recognition of different concepts, training of all signs that constitute language.
In the field of morphology (the study of word formation), these smaller units are called monemes.
The combination of monemes will result in the formation of different words.
So that the linguistic sign (the word) comes from a double joint, a joint or combined sound (phoneme) meaningless and another that provides meaning (monemes).
To be clear, we must not confuse monemes with syllables, because they do not carry any meaning.
/ g / - / a / - / t / - / o / - / s /
Monemes be classified according to the degree of significance that each of them contributes to the linguistic sign.
Thus we have:
Lexemes: provides general or basic meaning of the sign language and is consistent in all the words that are related to their meanings (word family). >
Morpheme: add other features of significance to the word, not that determine the generic or basic meaning, but those who define that meaning through meaningful restrictions, for example, provide gender or number to a linguistic sign. Depending on the information that morphemes added to the base lexeme or meaning of words, that in turn are classified into:
Morpheme GENDER: determining the grammatical gender of a linguistic sign (men-o; female-to, generically).
Morpheme NUMBER: indicate the plural or the singular of a linguistic sign, in our language, we speak of the presence of plural marker or as demarcation of ausecnia number (the number is given by the presence or absence of the morphemes-s ,-es, as general termination).
Verbal morpheme: have the particularity to gather in one estructra all information related with verbal inflection, this is so, time, person and number. Morphemes are traditionally known as verb endings.
A second classification of morphemes is related to the type of union they proganizan or failure thereof.
Within this classification are:
Free morphemes: they are not attached to lexemes are some, who alone componene a linguistic sign. Within this group we find prepositions and conjunctions, among others.
Morpheme obstacles: are those that must be present attached to a lexeme to give rise to a linguistic sign. Within this category, we find in turn a new division, which depends on the type of sign that help to form: the inflections and derivatives.
Inflections: they contribute to the formation of verb forms, being in charge to indicate the manner, time, number and person of action verbal and nonverbal signs appear (nouns and adjectives) as markers of gender and number.
CONSEQUENTIAL Morpheme: join tokens to enable the formation of words Dervio, among them we find those suffixes and prefixes, which provide a degree of significance preset the lexeme to which they bind.