Liberalism in spain moderates and progressives 1833-1840

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The Succession problem.

Isabella II was born and Ferdinand VII, his father, decided to Change the Salix Law to the Pragmatic Sanction, which allowed women to be on the Crown. During Isabella II´s minority, Her mother, Maria Cristina, assumed the Regency in 1833.

Although the Queen did not identify with the liberal ideology, the liberals were the only that could keep her in power so she called Martinez de la Rosa (moderate) to form the government to face the Carlist. He Started a series of very moderate Reforms, like a limited monarchy with The first bicameral Parliament of Spain, reflected in the Royal Statute of 1834.

The First Carlist War.

After Ferdinand VII´s death (1833), began the political and social division of the Country into liberal moderates, Who supported more the King´s rights, and liberal progressives, that defended reforms but were not revolutionary.

The war had two main characters: the carlist Zumalakarregi, who died in Bilbao´s siege, and the liberal Espartero (progressive).

This war Ended with the Vergara Agreement (1839), signed between Maroto and Espartero. In this, the carlist got the amnesty (forgiving the crimes they made) as long as they showed Loyalty to the Queen and the Fueros would be kept.

1837 Constitution.

In the Civil War, in 1836 the rebellion of La Granja sergeants happened. These Sergeants forced the Queen to proclaim the 1812 Constitution.

Maria Cristina, seeing that the 1812 Constitution was unacceptable for moderates, started the new constitutional text: national Sovereignty; powers division; bicameral courts; the King had the executive power, unlimited veto and was allowed to Suspend the Courts; individual rights and press freedom; other religions Were allowed…

In 1837, An Electoral Law was approved defining The limited male suffrage (man over 25).

The fall of Maria Cristina and the failure of Espartero´s Regency.

Once Carlist War was finished, the moderates, with the Crown sopport, wanted to put the Council´s Law. In this Law the representatives Of the council would be appointed By the government. Maria Cristina Signed the law and with this, the progressives lost any chances of being Majors. These organised a protest in the Most important cities.

Maria Cristina had to leave the regency to Espartero and exiled To France.

During this short period in office, he Accelerated the disentitlement of Church´s properties and the Basque and Navarrese Fueros were limited. He Governed using force, and this led him to lose popularity even among Progressives.

In 1843, Espartero exiled to Britain and Isabella II was proclaimed the Queen.

Moderate Decade (1844-1854).

Once Isabella II became Queen, she Demonstrated her preference for the moderates. In May 1844, Narvaez general, a moderate, formed a cabinet that took these measures: creation of the Civil Guard; Council´s Law (majors choosen by the government); Tax Reform (more rational, efficent And modern system); Electoral Law (the Suffrage would be very limited). This was the 1845 Constitution.

Progressive Two years (1854-1856).

Narvaez´s Power, each time more Dictatorial, provoked discontent and it ended in a pronouncement started by O´Donnell, when he published the Manzanares Manifiesto with which they obtained A wide popular backing. Finally, the Revolt triumphed and Spartero took the government.

The other leading figure of the government, general O´Donnell, created a new political party, Liberal Union, to cover the central Space between moderates and progressives.

The return Of moderates to power (1856-1858).

There was a break between Espartero and O´Donnell. The Liberal Union leader left the government in 1856 and this ended with the return Of Narvaez and the moderates. The 1845 moderate Constitution came into force again.

O´Donnell´s Union Liberal (1858-1863).

After two years in office of Narvaez, O´Donnell returned to power. This Period was marked by the economic Euphoria (boom of the railway) And foreign intervention, like wars, that produced a little result for the Country.

The return Of the Moderates (1863-1868).

Narvaez´s Return to power in 1863 marked the beginning of the last period of the moderates, that came to an end after the 1864 economic crisis because of political Instability.

The Glorious Revolution.

The dictatorial practises of the last moderate Governments widened the unpopularity of the regime. The economic crisis That started in 1866, increased the Discontents. Finally, Narvaez´s Death left the party without a leader.

When O´Donnell Died, his party Liberal Union, Now directed by general Serrano, convinced the progressives To put an end to Isabella II´s Government. The progressives, under Prim´s Direction, signed the Ostende Treaty compromising to fight against the Queen.

The democratic Upraise started in 1868 in Cadiz, With a military “pronunciamiento”. The Queen fled to France and the Glorious Revolution had succeeded.

The Provisional Government (1868-1871).

General Serrano Became the president and general Prim the War Minister. The new government organised elections and, then, Started writing a new constitution.

The 1869 Constitution.

It was the most radical of the 19th Century, considered as democratic: national sovereignty; Universal suffrage (men over 25); democratic Monarchy (limitations of the King´s Attributions).

Amadeo of Savoy´s democratic monarchy (1871-1873).

After the constitution, the state was defined As a monarchy. Prim became president of the government and they chose Amadeo of Savoy as the candidate For the Spanish throne.

The same day Amadeo arrived to Spain, Prim Was assassinated. There were several groups confronted: Carlists, Alfonsinos (in favour of the return of the Bourbons) and the Republicans (asking for new radical reforms).

The alliance that had brought Amadeo to the Throne, started to split up. There was political Instability and, unable to solving the situation, Amadeo I went back to Italy.

Without any other alternative, the Courts proclaimed the Republic in 1873.

The First Republic.

It was proclaimed By the Courts, but the republican ideas had little social support of the most important social groups. The Feebleness of the regime resulted in political Instability.

The republicans Started a series of radical reforms: suppression of taxes; reduction of the age to vote To 21 years; separation of Church and State…

The government had to face the Third Carlist War (Charles VII); republicans started the division Of the country, almost independent; Alphonsine Conspiracies (some of the army were working to restore the Bourbon and they prepared for a military pronouncement).

The Republic of the year 1874.

In 1874, General Pavia conducted a military group. The republican Courts were dissolved and a provisional government, presided by General Serrano, suspended the Constitution and the Freedom rights.

The republican regime continued for a year But, under Serrano´s dictatorship, The Bourbons were restored. The Alphonsines, commanded by Canovas del Castillo, worked in Favour of Isabella II´s son. He was proclaimed King Alphonse XII, with him the Restoration began.

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